A Project Report On Two Wheeler Solar Hybrid Vehicle
Hybrid motor vehicles, runs using conventional and non-conventional energy sources that are petrol and solar energy. The aim is to fabricate and optimize a two stroke engine vehicle powered by both battery and gasoline. It has greater advantage over previously used gasoline engine and that is the major source of air pollution. The operational cost is ten times less than that of petrol. The main propulsion units consist of a two stroke internal combustion engine and a hub motor attached to the front wheel of the scooter. A Hybrid electric vehicle which depends not only on batteries but also on an internal combustion engine. The method used to optimize the energy and fuel consumption of the hybrid electric scooter is the multi-mode approach. The fuel economy as well as battery usage are primary factors to be considered in the operation of hybrid vehicles. Hybrid scooters have a great potential in lowering emissions and reducing fuel demand as the ever growing problems of air pollution and global warming reached its critical stage. Hybrid motor vehicle configured to travel by using by an electric motor in addition with solar energy to an engine power have been developing. Along with solar panel that is mounted on the body of the scooter which is connected to the battery and further connected to the hub motor these problems by combining the advantages of both the systems and uses both the power sources at their efficient conditions. The objective of this project aims at better utilization of fuel energy and reduces dependence on non-renewable resources using latest technology. The implementation involves development of Hybrid vehicle that uses battery as well as gasoline power for Propulsion.
A. Energy Sources
Our project consists of both conventional and nonconventional energy sources i. e solar energy and Gasoline these type of vehicles depends not only on batteries but also on IC engines. Solar energy is the renewable energy that is collected from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale. Renewable energy often provides energy in many important areas one among them is electricity generation using solar panels.
B. Engine Modeling
The work discloses a hybrid system consisting of an Electric And Internal Combustion(IC) based power drives. The front wheel is being propelled by battery and the rear wheel is powered by gasoline, it includes a single cylinder, air cooled internal combustion engine and a BLDC motor based electric power drive used for hybrid powering of the vehicle. The controller is designed to implement the switching between IC Engine and Electric motor depending on the power requirement and load conditions.
The vehicle at lower speed runs with gasoline and at high speed it changes to electrical by manual method shows the attachment of tire with the hub motor. There is no need for any gear reduction since the torque produced is sufficient enough to drive the vehicle. The axel of the motor is connected to the suspension. Suspension is connected to the handle which is connected to the main chassis. Accessories such as headlamp, display are included as user aid. Four batteries are placed near the fuel tank. Engine is connected to the main chassis and seat is situated above the engine.
The AEIOU canvas helps to get the ideology about five main elements: Activities, Environment, Interaction, Objects, and Users.
Activities are the task and methods or actions that are related to the users and those that would be available to them.
Environment is nothing but the arena or platforms in which the activities would be used and implemented. Environment consist road, factories, village, cities, etc.
Interaction provides the activities that occur between people and between people and the environment. In our project we have done interaction with manufacturer of solar panel, we had done interaction for selection of vehicle.
Objects are the building blocks of the environment and occur in the environment with respective to their usage. Our objects are two wheeler bike, Battery, Solar panel.
Users are the people who use and develop the system, that is the intended people or group for which the product is designed. Users civilians, workers of Industries and Parks, etc.
Fabrication of vehicle
Mode of fabrication is that, the hub motor is fixed to the front wheel of the vehicle which gets charged by the batteries through solar panels. Controllers are placed in between the solar panels and batteries, so that current will not flow reverse direction. Solar panels are fixed to the vehicle by welding and rivet joints. However this electric vehicle depends not only on batteries but also on gasoline. Initially the vehicle starts with the gasoline and when it reaches certain speed the vehicle is switched from gasoline to electric power.
Hub motor electromagnetic fields are supplied to the stationary windings of a motor. The outer part of the motor follows those fields that turn the wheel that is attached. In a brushed motor, energy is transferred by brushes which are in direct contact with the rotating shaft of the motor. In a brushless motor, the Energy is transferred electronically, with no physical contact between stationary and moving parts. Although the brushless motor technology is more expensive, most of them are more efficient and longer-lasting than brushed motor systems. Electric motors have greater torques at0 startup, making them more suitable for vehicles as they need the most torque at startup too. Their greatest torques occurs as the rotor first starts turning and this is why electric motors do not require a mode. A gear-down arrangement might be needed, but unlike in a transmission type combustion engine, shifting is not needed for electric motors.
A solar cell (also called a photovoltaic cell) is an electrical device that helps in the conversion of light energy directly into electrical energy by creating voltage when it gets exposed to light. It is a form of photoelectric cell which, when exposed to light, can produce and support an electric current without being attached to any external source of voltage, but requires an external load for power consumption.
This is the field of technology and research relate to the practical application of photovoltaic cells in producing electricity from light, though it is more commonly used to refer to the generation of electricity from sunlight. Cells can be described as photovoltaic also when the light source is not necessarily sunlight (lamplight, artificial light, etc. ). In such cases the cell is sometimes used as a photo detector (for example infrared detector), for detecting light or other electromagnetic radiations near the visible range and measuring light intensity. The working of a photovoltaic (PV) cell requires 3 basic features:
- The absorbing of light, generating electron-hole pairs.
- The separation of charge carriers of unlike types.
- The separate extraction of those carriers to an external circuit.
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