Ethical And Cultural Heart Failure Effects

Many factors can increase the chances of individuals developing undesirable conditions like heart failure in Latin American countries like Brazil. For example, the reduced gross income per capita of Latin American countries (US$8,555) in comparison with Canada (US $38,370) and in the United States (US47, 310) is evidence for a lower economic status in Latin America and an increased heart failure risk (Bocchi et al. , 2013).

According to the articles under review, called “The Reality of Heart Failure In Latin America” by Edimar Alcides Bocchi, “Increased hospitalizations for decompensated heart failure and acute myocardial infarction during mild winters: A seven-year experience in the public health system of the largest city in Latin America” by Renato Kawahisa, “Child Health Care: Practices of a Brazilian Indigenous Population” by Larissa Mandarano Da Silva, and “The first National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil: rationale, methodology, and overview of results” by Carlos EA Colimbra Jr illustrate how the indigenous population of Brazil is at greater risk of developing undesirable conditions like heart failure. Which cultures or societies are most affected by the issue? Why?

Like many other countries around the world, indigenous people are among the most politically and socioeconomically marginalized segments of society (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). Presently, in the country of Brazil there are over 300 indigenous ethnic groups that speak more than 200 different languages in the country (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). In addition, most of the indigenous people in Brazil live in over 600 federally recognized reserves (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). Brazil, of all Latin American countries has one of the smallest indigenous populations by percentage, indigenous people only make up 0. 4 percent of the population according to the latest national demographic census (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). Each indigenous group in Brazil has its own customs, beliefs, languages, and history of interaction with non-indigenous people (Silva et al. , 2016). Also, many of the indigenous population consider themselves different from non-indigenous individuals in the country of Brazil.

According to the article under review, the indigenous population is one of the most affected by sickness and diseases compared to other non-indigenous Brazilians (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). For example, indigenous people in Brazil suffer from higher mortality rates, and are at greater risk of developing heart failure (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). Also, the Brazilian indigenous population has the worst the access to social and health services among all sub-populations in the country (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). For instance, many indigenous people have to travel long distances in areas where travel is arduous in order to have access to healthcare services (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). As a result, the indigenous population in Brazil has significantly greater risk developing undesirable conditions like heart failure.

Unfortunately, the indigenous population in Brazil is at greater risk of suffering from heart failure and many other diseases present in the country. For example, recent studies have identified that the emergence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus is growing in number amongst the indigenous communities in all regions of Brazil (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). However, the paper under review highlighted on how little is known about the health condition, diet, and nutrition of indigenous people in the country. In particular, indigenous peoples in Brazil have not been adequately addressed by the major national health surveys (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). To address the lack of national health statistics amongst the indigenous population in Brazil, the first National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition was conducted from 2008 to 2009 (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). The intention of the survey was to gather information on the health and nutrition of Brazil’s indigenous population.

The survey was done by studying indigenous children under the age of five, and indigenous women from ages 14 to 49 (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). In order to perform the experiment a questionnaire was answered by one or more of the community leaders, a second survey was answered by an adult in the residence, and the third questionnaire was answered by the women in the household (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). However, the results of the experiment concluded that women’s and children’s health indicators were worse than the ones documented from the national Brazilian population (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). For example, the survey conducted that 32. 7% percent of women suffered from anemia, 30. 3% percent were overweight, 15. 8% percent suffered from obesity, and 13. 2% percent had hypertension (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). On the other hand, the results of indigenous children indicated that 51. 2% percent suffered from anemia, 19. 3% percent were hospitalized during the past year, and 25. 7% percent had a height for age deficit for their age (Coimbra Jr et al. , 2013). Nonetheless, like many other countries in Latin America, those with increased risk factors are from lower income communities. How are money, power, and control matters related to the issue and its treatment?

Like in many other countries around the world, money grants individuals the power and control to better their lives in the country of Brazil. Socioeconomic deprivation is a powerful independent predictor of heart failure development and adverse outcomes in countries like Brazil (Bocchi et al. , 2013). Compared to countries like the United States the income per capita in countries like Brazil are much lower which highlights the increase risk of individuals developing heart failure.

For example, in reference to access to health care, 2009 U. S. data from the WHO showed the expenditure on health care as a percentage of the gross domestic product and as per capita costs is 17. 9% and US8,364, respectively, whereas in Latin America, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Mexico, the values were 7. 2% and US$632, 9% and $943, 9. 5% and 1387, 8. 2% and $1. 172, and 6. 5% and 846, respectively (Bocchi et al. , 2013). As a result, those living in the country of Brazil are at greater risk of developing heart failure, and developing undesirable conditions at a much younger age than those in countries like the United States. Given Brazil’s limited expenditure on health, individuals suffer from heart failure at a much greater number than in more developed countries. For example, in Brazil patients suffering from heart failure are much younger (53 to 73 years old), and at least 1 study showed female predominance of 58% percent (Bocchi et al. , 2013). In addition, heart failure has become one of the leading causes of hospitalization in Brazil, and myocardial infarction has become the main cause of death in the country (Levin et al. , 2018). As a result, the inpatient mortality rate in Brazil is much higher than in other countries like the United States that is 2. 7% percent, Hong Kong 0. 5% percent, and Mexico 2. 9%; whereas Brazil had the highest inpatient mortality rate at 8. 5% percent (Bocchi et al. , 2013). Brazil, like many other Latin American countries have individuals suffering from heart failure at much younger ages than in the United States (Levin et al. , 2018).

However, In Brazil economic money gives individuals the opportunity to have better medical treatment when it comes to avoiding conditions like heart failure. As a result of Brazil’s increase risk factors, the burden the country will have as a result to heart failure will continue for years to come as the population ages (Bocchi et al. , 2013). ConclusionThe indigenous population in Brazil is a very small community of individuals that live in the country, and are the population highest at risk of developing undesirable conditions like heart failure. One of the studies that was conducted discovered that indigenous women and children are in worse health condition than non-indigenous Brazilians. In addition, the age individual develop heart failure is much younger than more develop countries like the United States, and the inpatient death rate is higher than many other countries. Much of the reason that the indigenous population of Brazil is at greater risk is the lack of having control of their health due to the lower income status many of them have: also, the geographic barriers many encounter to access health services. Like in many countries around the world, money gives individuals to the power to be independent, and the control of obtaining medical treatment when needed. As a result, the Brazilian indigenous population is at greater risk of developing heart failure because many don’t have the power to seek preventative treatment.

To conclude, all the articles under review highlighted the need for further research in the many interesting indigenous communities in Latin America in order to better understand the higher morbidity and mortality rates in the population.

03 December 2019
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