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Moringa Oleifera Treatment Prevents Crude Oil Tainted Diet Imposed Toxicity In Rats

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Previous researches have documented the health and nutritional benefits of Moringa tree. This study aimed at evaluating the health benefit of Moringa oleifera leaves toward protecting against hydrocarbon- adulterated diet prompted harmfulness in wistar albino rats. Rats were mobilized and fed hydrocarbon adulterated diet that was pretreated with ground Moringa leaves. Liver, kidney and cardiovascular disease indices were determined and values evaluated relative to rats fed diet without hydrocarbon.

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Significant (P<0.05) hepatic derangement occasioned by changes in liver function enzymes and protein profile were observed. Similarly, kidney impairment markers were observed to be significantly altered by hydrocarbon tainted feed and significant (P<0.05) change in the atherosclerotic indices as exemplified by in serum lipid profile. Generally, pretreatment of hydrocarbon adulterated diet with Moringa oleifera leaf positively modulated the values of both liver and kidney markers close to control values.

This study establishes the protective effect of Moringa oleifera complemented diet against hydrocarbon- induced harmfulness

Introduction

In addition to contaminated food and water and through oil pollution, so many people in southern Nigeria are exposed to hydrocarbon noxiousness by occupation and use in traditional medicine practices. The health impacts of petroleum and related substances are vast in literature.

Some these toxicological imports include compromising of the structural architecture of some organs in animals. Moringa oleifera is important medicinally. It has antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, anti anaemic and hypoglycaemic actions as well as protection against toxicant-induced organ damage. The intent of this study was to evaluate the protecting capability of Moringa oleifera augmented diet against the toxicological aspects of hydrocarbon tainted diet.

Materials and methods

Bonny light hydrocarbon was got from Department of Petroleum Resources, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Moringa leaves are products of Moringa tree in Abraka and were identified by the Department of Botany, Delta State University, Nigeria. Male albino rats were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Delta state University, Abraka. The experimental rats were kept in clean cages for acclimatization for two weeks on grower’s feed and water. Thereafter the weights were taken and the weights ranged between 130 – 175g. Reagents were analytical grade and standard kits.

Twelve rats were pooled into a group and five groups were constituted as follows: Rats in group 1 were fed diet devoid of any treatment, which serve as the control. Rat in group 2 were given feed treated with 5g Moringa per 100g of feed. Rats in groups 3 were given hydrocarbon tainted feed (5m oil crude/100g of feed). Rats in groups 4 and 5 were fed with hydrocarbon contaminated growers feeds (5ml/ 100g of feed) which were treated with 5g and 10 g Moringa per 100g of feed, respectively. Water was made available adlibitum to the rats in all the groups. The experiment lasted for four months and during the exposure period, feeds for all the groups were prepared on a daily basis and unconsumed feeds were discarded. At the end of four months, the rats were sacrificed under chloroform anesthesia and blood samples w collected from the vena cava into sample bottles and kept at – 4o C.Randox kit was used to assay for all the biochemical parameters except bicarbonate that was determined by titration, sodium and potassium ions by means of flame photometer (Model 410, Sherwood scientific) and calcium ion by Cyaman assay kit.

The level of globulin was estimated based on difference between total protein and albumin and low density lipoprotein (LDL) was evaluated using the equation: LDL= TC- TAG/2.2- HDL.STATISTICAL

Analysis

All data were analyzed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significant difference between treatment set at 5%confidence limit.

Result

Liver function enzymes in rats fed hydrocarbon tainted feed significantly (P <0.05) exacerbated but addition of M. oleifera leaf in the adulterated diet significantly (P < 0.05) enthused a drop in the activities of these enzymes compared to the level in control rats. Hydrocarbon tainted diet significantly (P<0.05) altered the protein profiles but treatment of the diet with M. oleifera leaf significantly (P<0.05) tended to restore levels of serum proteins to normal in comparison to levels in rats devoid any treatment (Figure 2). Incorporation of M. oleifera into hydrocarbon adulterated feed was able to restore values of most of the kidney function markers to the values rats fed hydrocarbon tainted feed.

The alterations in lipid in lipid profiles imposed by hydrocarbon tainted diet was reversed by treatment of hydrocarbon adulterated diet with M. oleifera.

Discussion

The liver and the kidney are two important organ in animal physiology because the two organs works synergistically to complete cycle of biotransformation and discharge of harmful substance. Therefore, it is imperative to undertake the evaluation of the capacity of Moringa oleifera to offer protection in the midst of hydrocarbon mediated insults on the two organs. There is increase in serum levels of liver function enzymes due to cellular leakage of these enzymes from compromised liver structural integrity is in tandem with many results in literature.

In addition, decrease in liver associated serum proteins was also observed. Thus giving weight to liver damage due to petroleum tainted diet In line with liver enzymes, previous authors had similar results of decreased serum protein levels which was predicated on decreased liver synthesis of these protein due to availability of toxicant in the liver cell environment.

Most importantly, this study equally corroborated the work of Al-said et al., (2012) and Saalu et al (2012 on the prevention of toxicant insults by Moringa oleifera which effected decrease in the activities of liver function enzymes, an indication of restoration of hepatocytes ultrastructure. Many authors have documented M. oleifera as a rich source of antioxidant substances, which may be responsible for the potency as an antidote for hydrocarbon linked injuriousness. Similar protection by plant-based material such as palm oil; honey; Monodora myristica, Vernonia amygdalina are available in literature. The restoration of the activities of the hepatic enzymes by M. oleifera regardless of intake of hydrocarbon contaminated diet by the rats is attributable to the plant ability to stabilize the cell membrane and thus prevents enzyme leakages. Like the liver, the integrity of the kidney was also compromised. This is seen in the significant (P<0.05) increase in serum kidney function markers. This information is in unison with previous reports.

However, addition of M. oleifera to the rats feed prevented hydrocarbon induced kidney damage In fact, addition of M. oleifera leaf to hydrocarbon-contaminated diet improved kidney function markers in a close semblance with those values in control rats. Similar preventive potentials of plant derived materials against organ damage was recently documented. Consumption of hydrocarbon can lead to cardiovascular disorders which are associated with oscillations in lipid metabolism. This agrees with this study which harped on fluctuations in triacyglycerides and lipoproteins. However, and interestingly too, the incorporation of M. Oleifera into the diet resulted in significant restoration of lipid profile close to control values.

In fact, the hypolipidaemic action of M oleifera was earlier reported. M. oleifera improved the lipid status of rats due to its antioxidant properties. The injurious provoking dispositions of hydrocarbon had been associated free radical generation and improvement of lipid profile by antioxidants vitamins. In fact the lipid profile of rats given M. oleifera was better than the rats without any treatment.

Conclusion

In general data in this study indicates that, treatment of hydrocarbon tainted diet with M. oleifera could prevent organ damages and predisposition to cardiovascular disease.

03 December 2019

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