Preparation of a novel enzyme-coated nanoparticles for treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

Saudi Arabia faces a change in the pattern of diseases from simple infectious diseases where the management is low cost to more complicated diseases where management entails high cost and advanced technology. The worry of facing those diseases is causing severe pressure on individuals and government resources. Communicable diseases such as tuberculosis, hepatitis and HIV/AIDS need support programs.

Tuberculosis is taken care of, hepatitis HIV/AIDS need concentrated efforts since both are virus diseases, both can spread in epidemic form and both have no vaccination yet to combat them. Facing communicable diseases that spread in epidemic forms, e. g. hepatitis B and C, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis are but examples diseases named by WHO that need programs to combat them. Saudi Arabia should make use of international funds and scientific support assigned for those diseases/In case of HIV/AIDS the small numbers reported today should not make us comfortable. Preventive measures, education and awareness should be continuous to prevent the spread in epidemic form. One terrific example of a creative financing mechanism is UNITAID. In 2006, French Foreign Minister Philippe Douste-Blazy and President Jacques Chirac led the people of France in a groundbreaking effort to raise funds for development.

Together with President Lula of Brazil, and the governments of Chile, Norway, and the United Kingdom, they established a small tax on airline tickets, and the combined contributions would help scale up access to life-saving HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria treatments, lower the prices of drugs and tests, and accelerate the pace at which they reach those in need. Since its inception, 37 governments have joined France in contributing finances to UNITAID, which raises approximately US$350 million every year – without negatively impacting the airline industry. It was a brilliant idea and is a proven model that has unearthed new channels of givers and founded new platforms for them to give. AIDS. Tuberculosis. Heart and lung disease. Brain disease. Anyone can be affected, but it is the poor, afflicted by overwhelming powerlessness, who suffer most. Refugees, the homeless, the forgotten and the unfortunate. So much despair. The young student searches for the right path, a way of putting his sympathy for bruised humanity to good use.

Problem statement: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the worldwide leading infectious diseases causing 3 million deaths/year, 8 million new cases/year and 1/3 of world population are expected to harbour latent TB infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent and the poor hygienic conditions stands behind its wide spreading. A combined antibiotic regime for almost 6 months is required for its treatment. Emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis has become a serious public health threat, as there are fewer, or even sometimes, no effective antimicrobial agents available for infections caused by this bacterium. To overcome the resistance problems, current efforts have been directed at developing bio-based antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial enzymes have emerged as an attractive target area from which to source new solutions for topical applications.

The present study aims to formulate novel enzyme coated nanoparticles for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis that will shorten the duration of the treatment.

Attaching of enzyme to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using the positive and negative charge of enzyme and citrate-AuNPs at neutral pH may provide a new strategy in nano-formulations. AuNPs will in stable form after coating with 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) prior coating with enzyme which resist the aggregation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-VIS absorption spectra indicate a successful coating of AuNPs with enzyme.

13 January 2020
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