Rapid Development of Change Processes on the Example of IBM


This essay is meant to critically understand the changes that prevail in the current era and are evolving in a rapid pace. In today’s generation, implementing change is a prominent aspect for acquiring sustainability. However, the chance of achieving success or failure through change greatly depends on the managing the change. Therefore, an effective management of change can lead to sustainability and if the change is not managed well then difficulties will arise in the long-term as change is continuous rather than a single event. The essay comprises of the uses and key elements of effective change management. The essay has been formulated to illustrate the implementation and management of the processes of the change with the example of the case study if International Business Machines (IBM). In the process of critically reviewing the implementation process of IBM, different change theories and concepts such as Hope Hailey & Balogun change kaleidoscope model, Lewin change management model, kotter’s change management theory, Beckhard and Harris’s change equation theory has been taken into consideration and base for the essay.

IBM’s Change Management

From the contextual analysis, it has been pursued that during the hour of 1992-1993, IBM confronted significant cash-based downturn. Thus, they confronted a loss of US$4 billion dollar. For diminishing the measure of misfortune, IBM procured Gerstner as their chairperson. Following Gerstner’s joining in the IBM, Gerstner took various designs to arriving at objectives, for example, significant decrease of the staff, improvement of the client relationship, decentralized the structure without having one focal territory of direction and characterized the center capacity to do things in an expert level of the IBM. For the activity of achieving or finishing something like this, Gerstner has placed into utilization of immense change in the association. He cut the work force of the organization, however made a move to give more grant to employees as indicated by their exhibition with the goal that they can feel more want to accomplish something at their work environment and gain motivation. Alongside change putting into utilization, Gerstner made diverse viable move to decrease the resistance that are against the change. There are more than two, however not many the model and theories to manage change that can depict the means that Gerstner has taken to beat the actions taken to resist change at IBM.

Change Kaleidoscope

Change kaleidoscope is one of the strong fundamental structures on which greater things can be constructed that is especially helpful with regards to the execution of delicate change process. The Balogun and Hailey built up this model for systematize and pulling wide scope of the execution alternative just as contextual highlights, which is one of the required contemplations during a change. Kaleidoscope basically contains two distinct kinds of rings, for example, external ring and the internal ring. Among them, external ring primarily ponders the settings of progress that either limitations or empower any change. Then again, internal ring for the most part contains the implementation alternatives accessible for the evolving specialists. From the case analysis, it has been pursued that Gerstner was chosen as a chairman in the time of 1993 and following his arrangement; he has implemented colossal number of changes in the organization for reducing some operational expenses.

For the decrease of enormous misfortunes that IBM confronted in present time, Gerstner has predominantly reduced the expenses identified with the human resources. Alongside that, he put into execution of some viable reward management strategies to motivate their current laborers. A Change kaleidoscope model when Gerstner was chosen as a chairman is as per discussed below:

Time: Gerstner essentially put into utilization this change to change the financial state of the organization and set up it as a lucrative organization. For changing the economic state of the organization, Gerstner has taken two years of time from 1993 to 1995 to change the economic state of the organization by taking out the excess staff of the organization. Gerstner has placed into implementation of the change to make a long-term arrangement of the present issue confronted by organization that is excess number of staffs. The fundamental required things of the financial exchange or investors of IBM are verifying tremendous measure of profit through purchasing or selling the shares of the organization. In this manner, for the attaining of gigantic number of profits in an extremely brief time, investors anticipate a result in short span.

Scope: For execution of the change, it is essential to coordinate the output by dispensing with excessive number of staffs. The endorsed change in the Gerstner not just influences a solitary division of the IBM however it influences the entire organisation by making tremendous measure of profit. Excessive measure of staff is consistently load down for any organization that consistently gets extra operating expenses. In this manner, for verifying enormous measure of profit it is imperative to end the excess staff. In any case, it is additionally significant for the organization to oversee stress of the current workers for verifying remarkable organizational output.


According to Lewin’s change management model, there are three process that are described in the concept. For acquiring change, these three distinct procedures which are unfreeze, transit and refreeze are required to be carried out. Lewin depicts that vast number of employees work and try to find and settle at a safe side during change so that the can be motivated before the change is imposed. For beating the resistance for change Gerstner has given award to the presentation so representatives can be motivated, and he can confront insignificant degree of obstruction while actualizing the change. As indicated by the Lewin's model, the initial step of the change is unfreezing that for the most part includes the progression for setting up the laborers for placing into change application. Furthermore, Gerstner intended to cut enormous workforce with the goal that it can without much of a stretch de-motivate the current staff. Consequently, so as to decrease the degree of staff de-motivation and make them more concentrate towards their work, Gerstner furnished execution-based prize and alongside that he isolated the entire remuneration structure into many legitimacy budget plans. This goal achievement plan is successful for him to keep their capable staff. The subsequent stage of the unfreeze step is the change execution stage. In this stage, changes are utilized yet this placing into utilization may take some time since individuals by and large take a few times to embrace the changes. This progression must include the reassurance just as great leadership achievement plan since it not just encourages the administration to place into utilization and alter it into the correct direction, however it additionally causes the laborers to execute change that are associated with the change executing process. Be that as it may, powerful time or communication is significant for placing change into execution yet here Gerstner didn't adequately convey to execute the change. The subsequent stage of the change placing into utilization step is the refreeze step. This progression for the most part required to tether the change progressions with the association's culture so that the changes are anchored for long term. This progression likewise includes a few different ways for sustainability of change. From the case analysis, it very well may be said that IBM is having difficulties so that they may require continuous cut in workforce size. In this way, for sustainable change they didn't demand laborers to give all their determination to their organisation. They have guided them to remain in their association yet instructed them to be prepared to leave the association.

The Kurt Lewin created force field analysis clarification concept, which is successful to help any person to settle on viable basic leadership and take effective decisions. This clarification theory states, there are constantly two kinds of forces that are main driving and restraining forces that makes any association working. For the compelling upkeep of the activity, it is required to keep up a consistent balanced condition between these two forces. From the case investigation, it is viewed that here the restricting powers are the employee resistance after the change that makes low degree of the authoritative functioning. Then again, the main impetuses of the progressions that help Gerstner to achieve the change criteria are the execution of the effective reward strategic plan, remuneration strategy based on performance of the workers and strategic stress management plans for laborers. Alongside the Lewin's change model, Kotter's change theory likewise clarifies the change executing procedure in the IBM. Kotter's change management concept is one of the most famous clarifications theory that gap the change executing procedure into eight unique steps. The initial step of the Kotter change management procedure is expanding the urgency. This progression principally includes making of the outrageous urgency among the administration of any association so they can feel motivated to attain the objective. Along these lines, before placing change into utilization, Gerstner first feel the change urgency by which they can cut the cost related employees and strategically plan to attain motivation. The next stage of the managing change procedure is building the group by which they can include the opportune individuals as indicated by their aptitudes, responsibility and knowledge. For executing change and cut the operational expenses, Gerstner has promptly employed two experienced proficient Gerald Czemecki and Jerom York who are pros to reduce the expenses contemplating human resource in best ways. From that point onward, it is critical to make a right proclamation apropos vision so viable change can be placed into utilization as per the vision statement. For the improvement of the vision articulation, Gerstner not just chooses a viable strategic plan however he likewise links it with the creativity and emotional linkage. After the age of the vision, it is essential to discuss the vision with individual in organization considering the proposed change in the organization. By contrasting this progression and the case analysis, it tends to be said that after the improvement of the vision and inclusion of the perfect individuals, Gerstner has discuss this vision with the other individual in the organization so the change can be placed into utilization with viability and the entirety of the individuals and can comprehend the need of change. Subsequent to discussing the change with various degree of the management, it is required to carry out various activity. As expressed by Smets et al., commissioning the action, it is significant for one individual to get the help, decrease the obstruction that can make issue and execute the response and feedback framework in manners that are progressively useful. From the case analysis, it has been pursued that Gerstner has accepted that organisational change that he has intended to place into utilization can make colossal resistance from the worker with the goal that he proposed unique strategic plan of arriving at objectives, for example, execution performance pay and award for the productive performance. Gerstner additionally expressed that he doesnt need the total degree of responsibility and commitment from the worker, the main thing that he needed from his representative is their exibition of performance. Be that as it may, he mentioned laborers to be arranged consistently for leaving the organization. The following stage of the Kotter's change management model is concentrating on the short span objective. For the procurement of the most significant objective in the association, Gerstner has partitioned the objective into various attainable parts. The most significant objective of the Gerstner is verifying a profit saving by cutting the work power related expenses. For attaining which he gradually diminished the quantity of work of IBM and just hold the star performers and the worthy performers of the IBM. Kotter's change management concept depicted that being consistent is the key of each achievement. Hence, for the execution of the viable change management in the organization, it is significant for the Gerstner to be consistent with the change. The following stage of the change management is fusing the progressions by strengthening it and making it a part of culture of the working environment.


The above scrutiny culminates the way that for the implementing any change all the more effectively, it is significant for any organization to have compelling and effective change management strategy. It is sound for any association to confront resistance for change subsequent to its implementation, in this manner, viable plan for change management should be formed before placing it into execution of any change. For the execution of any change, it is significant for any association to include their laborers with more adequacy in light of the fact that the entire change management procedure is for the most part subordinate upon them. For any fruitful change, association of viable administration strategy is additionally significant because it helps laborers of any changed organization to change a little and adjust to those changes.

07 July 2022
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