The Beginning Of The French Revolution

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From the announcement of the opening of the States General, the desire to change the Nation emanated from all walks of life and we were apprehensive with anxiety or enthusiasm for this moment. Already, a strong political impetus traversed the country, Louis XVI and Necker were worried. Who would become the master of the situation? Will the legacy of the Enlightenment speak for the future? How would the events unfold? Was it irredeemably changing the course of life of the French? These questions would soon find their meaning, very quickly the weight of the privileges will provoke a revolutionary gearing which will not finish until ten years later.

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The States General were solemnly opened on May 5, 1789, very quickly a fierce debate broke out on how to vote: “per capita”, a vote for each man, or “by order”, a single voice for each of the three states as the wanted the tradition. At the instigation of Mirabeau, the deputies of the third state refused to verify their power in order to avoid at all costs the vote “by order”. They hoped to save time, the various attempts to unblock the situation had proved useless. Conscious of representing the majority of the French, the popular delegates of the third party withdraw on June 17 and constitute themselves in National Assembly. On the same day, the Assembly prohibits any unverified and self-imposed tax levy. Naturally, neither the king nor the privileged appreciated this novelty. Louis XVI resolves to the rigor and invited the three orders to resume their place at a next royal meeting.

On June 20, under the pretext of carrying out maintenance work, the king forbade access to the hall where the Estates General met. The representatives of the third estate then gathered in a gymnasium which was used for the game of palm. There, under the proposal of MP Mounier, they pledged “never to separate” before giving France a Constitution, each in turn the deputies repeat “I swear! “. The next day, the king closes the gymnasium, because it is reserved by the count of Artois, the brother of the king (Charles X). The deputies then meet in the church Saint Louis which the clergy granted to them. Louis XVI then assembled troops to dissolve this assembly of recalcitrant, but soon a large part of the clergy joined the third. In order to limit the damage, the king then orders the clergy and the nobility to participate with the third party in the drafting of constitutional texts. July 9, 1789, the National Assembly becomes a constituent, it will establish the foundations of a constitutional monarchy, it is believed the revolution completed.

Very quickly, the assembly begins discussions behind the deputy Mounier, and La Fayette who, inspired by his passage in the United States already proposes a declaration of human rights. But the King precipitated the events, he sends back his Finance Minister Necker, who is held responsible for the disorder, it is a real consternation for the people who attached him esteem. Louis XVI further ordered the concentration of troops around the capital, to quell the rebellion with bayonets. Under the leadership of Camille Desmoulins, the Parisian people gathered and anarchy began to settle in the capital. On July 14th, the Bastille was attacked, an old fortress which had become a prison which, for the Parisians, represented the symbol of absolutism, it was taken and razed. On his return from a hunt, the astonished king asked, “Is this a revolt? “No, Sire, it’s a revolution. ” Louis XVI once again drew back and called Necker back.

29 April 2020

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