The Concept of Belonging in 'A Scandal in Bohemia' and 'A Passage to India'

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Humanism has been a crucial philosophical viewpoint in twentieth-century, with several literary artists making an attempt to uphold it in their writings. Historically speaking, in the first half of this century the idea of the essentially secular nature of human identity and the essential equality and unity of all human beings replaced the dependency on the transcendent domain of the earlier ones in a radical way. Humanism must have the concept of belonging to ensure that everyone deserve their right as human. “Much of what people in general do is completed in the service of belongingness”. 

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The concept of belonging use by the two writer can be seen through the ethnic, racial, cultural and religious. In A Passage to India, Forster portrays a group of characters from both races the English and Indian with two different kinds of perceptual characteristics in both cultures.

A Passage to India is that the tale of two culturally distinct race the Western and for the Non-Eastern, begin in the town of Chandrapore, a representative town in the north of British India. Their living side by side as the colonizers and therefore the colonized drive them into conflicts and Foster’s depiction of that colonial conflict provides vent to his attitudes towards these two races Beginning with a crucial question whether or not a friendly relationship is feasible between the people of East and West, Forster spins a yam in order to express a kind of racial essentialism and superiority.

Through a simplistic analysis, Forster seems to be cynical of English characters, but the intensive perusal of the novel makes it clear that Forster’s English people are depicted as generally decent, civilized and leaving. On the other way, Forster make the reader imagine are all in one way which Indian are miserable creatures, dishonest and fawning.

Forster portray the concept of belonging of racial through the scene the first scene the meeting between Mrs Moore and Aziz. When Aziz asked Mrs. Moore what is her name. Aziz can correctly guess that she just arrived in India and through her attitude to him. Mrs. Moore attitude towards Aziz is polite not like other English people who treated Indians poorly. Likewise, in the other scene between Mrs. Moore and Aziz, she said that she did not like Callandar, and Aziz told her that both Callandars treat him poorly. Mrs Moore listens all of that with sympathy and Aziz is pleased.

Furthermore, the second one is where Turton said that he did not socialized with Indians, however he arranged The Bridge Party which known a party that has gap between the Indians and Englishmen. Nawab Bahdur who is an Indian man invited by Mr Tutron just because of his status. In this scene, Ronny Heaslop also criticized how the Indians dress and remarks that most of them are ‘seditious’. At the party, Adela and Mrs. Moore treat the Indian with respect and befriend with them, who appreciate the attention they received.

In addition, Forster also illustrate the concept of belonging which are cultural and religious in his works. For instance, Mrs. Moore who just arrive India do not even know the culture there, she enters the mosque with her shoes on when Aziz see that he shouts that she cannot enter holy place with shoes. Mrs. Moore explained that she already removes her shoes, Aziz quickly apologizes for his behavior.

This show even Mrs. Moore from other religion she still accepts and respect other culture and belief. She meets Aziz in the mosque and her conversation with him shows in contrast to him how reverent she is towards other religions, how friendly and how completely free from prejudices she is. She respects all the peoples of the world and loves even the tiny creatures and has a deep curiosity about the Indians and suffers from no racial prejudices. Besides, Forster give the idea that British separate themselves and limit to socialize with Indians which cause them to let the opportunities to learn about culture, religious and tradition of Indian. As a result, they always thought that Indian is misery and muddle the way that the narrator interprets. This attitude leads to misunderstandings and heightened tension between the English and the Indians. In this case, Adela Quested does not mean to insult Aziz when she asks either he has one or more wife because what she belief norm for them to have more wives. But to ask an educated Indian Moslem how many wives he has appalling, hideous. Above all, Forster use the concept of belonging to illustrate is that possible for British and Indians friendship would happen between them. The concept of belonging which are cultural, religious and racial give a great impact in A Passage to India.

In late century, the culture for the women has been a silent part in the majority of the world. Women has been considered has no right to speak and must be portray as the society want them to be seen. However, in the late 19th century, work by Doyle illustrate the important role of woman in his work. Doyle use the concept of belonging which is cultural to portray woman role in his novel and how women roles give an impact to the society.

In ‘A Scandal in Bohemia’,’ the first Sherlock Holmes story, published in 1891, Holmes is upstaged and tricked, for the first and the last time, by a woman. Scandal in Bohemia by Arthur Conan Doyle use the concept of belonging which is cultural. The story involves Irene Adler who is retired opera singer and the king of Bohemia who is her former love. The king forced to marry someone same with his status and from the same background which make Adler threaten to spread their photo. The king then hires Sherlock Holmes to negotiate and investigate Irene Adler.

The character of Irene Adler introduced by the narrator as duality of female physical and male psychology. The king also stated that “she had the most beautiful face of a woman, and the mind of the resolute man.’ She also crosses gender barriers by wearing men’s clothes, acknowledging that ‘male costume is nothing new to me. I often take advantage of the freedom which it gives” In addition to the benefits mentioned, the impersonation gave Adler something more important. She does this regularly, probably because the ‘walking clothes’ are more comfortable than Victorian corsets and dresses.

Doyle’s work relies on displacement from male to female, which the character of woman take place, eclipses and defeat the role of males in the story. Sherlock’s case against Adler was his personal and sexual abuse picture of a British Royal woman. Adler is described as ‘The Woman,’ by the Holmes. To many viewers, the fact that Adler is a dominant role for the women. Most of these supporters will see this liberal feminist views. Doyle use the concept of belonging in cultural to illustrate the role of woman in the character of Irene Adler. The clash cultural how Doyle portray Adler and as witty, not feminine and also rational like a ma n has open a new space for the societies to accept this kind of role in the society. The society even notice how the role of women can detrude the role of man. Which can be seen through, how Holmes cannot say Irene Adler name and always call her as ‘The Woman’. The concept of belonging which Doyle attempt use in his work open many eyes how smart and role of woman can be play.

In spite of the fact that Adler is intended to be the new women’s activist symbol in the Sherlock arrangement, it is clear that it doesn’t need to occur. In Sherlock, Adler is characterized by her gentility and her scenes all in all simply professing to depict solid female characters, just to be beaten by them same female qualities. 

Arthur Conan Doyle and E.M Forster use the concept of belonging in their work which is A Scandal in bohemia and A Passage to India.The felling of safe and closure where they belong. The primary interest of belonging need is a psychological sense of being in a state of communion with others or a safe unit. The concept of belonging means social acceptance throughout life. 

29 April 2022

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