The Developments In Science, Art And Medicine During The Italian Renaissance

The italian renaissance was a massive growth for both society and other parts of life, such as stock rises, new discoveries and overall improvements on life. The term “renaissance” is actually the French term for the word “rebirth” this could be a reference as to the fact that there were great changes to Italy during the renaissance. It is thought that during the renaissance, science, art and medicine were three topics that were greatly improved or worked on during the renaissance.

During the Medieval times, the Earth was originally thought to have been flat, as the word of the Earth's spherical shape had not yet spread to italy, and there was a lack of astronomy outside of the movements of the stars. However, the Renaissance would bring two men so influential that their teachings with would be used to teach astronomy centuries after their deaths, their names were Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei. Nicolaus Copernicus was a polish born astronomer who began his work in astronomy by studying the movements of the stars, though he eventually moved on to the subject of planets, and that is where he first constructed his heliocentric theory. The heliocentric theory consisted of the sun being the centre of the solar system, with all the other planets hovering around it. As for Galileo Galilei, he was a math teacher turned astronomer thanks to a custom made telescope that helped him discover both the fact that the moon had mountains, just like earth, and not only that, he had discovered 4 of Jupiter’s moons. With that, Galilei was a strong believer of Copernicus’s theory, and was largely seen as a heretic because of it.

Before the Renaissance, art largely consisted of sculptures, and the paintings that did exist consisted of very dull and boring colorschemes. Artists were not paid very much, and the fact that they were only paid through commissions certainly didn't help. It was Not until the Renaissance that artists would begin to be treated properly, as wealthy individuals such as popes, bankers or merchants would begin to commission artists to create art and sculptures for them, they would also be offered homes in exchange for their art. Wealthy families would commission artists to decorate and paint their homes with things like bright colors and statues. Some more popular or well known artists would open their own workshops for the purpose of teaching their pupils. Some pieces of art from the Renaissance period now go for hundred of thousands or even millions of dollars in value!

The postmortem medical procedure ever known as an autopsy consists of the dissection and analyzation of the corpse. It was first performed in the early 1300s, 1302 to be exact. With the first autopsy in history being done on a man named Azzolino Degli Onesti, he was suspected to be murdered, which is why it was decided that he would be dissected, a decision that would permanently affect the medical field, to help solve causes of death and murders to this very day. As the dissection finished, it was discovered that Onesti had died due to blood clotting his chillic vein and liver. A whole one hundred and eighty four years later in 1486, a women named Bartolomea Rinieri was autopsied so her daughter could be treated for what caused her death. After her autopsy, it was found that she had a blackened and diseased womb. After this, doctors began offering to perform autopsies on high class members of society. Along with craniotomies (a flap in the skull is opened so the brain can be studied) along with embalming (preserving the body (usually temporarily) for events like public viewings).

Overall, in conclusion the three most significant developments of the renaissance were science (astronomy), as Nicolaus Copernicus and his heliocentric theory. As well as Galileo Galilei’s telescope and realization of the moon’s mountains and Jupiter’s moons. Art, as most art styles changed dramatically, from almost exclusively sculpting, to brightly colored and fancy paintings. And finally Medicine (Autopsies) where the first autopsies performed in 1302 that would help solve deaths and murders even to this day.

16 December 2021
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