The Impact of Psychological Pricing Strategy on Consumer Buying Behaviour


A business will use a style of valuation methods for the commercialism of a product or service. The value is often set to maximize profit for every unit sold-out or from the market overall. They are often accustomed to defending the associate degree existing market from new entrants, extending market share at intervals a market, or entering a replacement market. Valuation methods take into consideration several of your business factors like revenue goals, selling objectives, audience, whole positioning, and merchandise attributes. They're conjointly influenced by external factors like client demand, challenger valuation, and overall market and economic trends. There are varied forms of valuation methods like competition-based pricing, cost-plus pricing, dynamic pricing, freemium pricing, high-low pricing, hourly pricing, skimming pricing, penetration pricing, premium pricing, value-based pricing, bundle pricing, geographic pricing, and psychological pricing.

Competition-based pricing strategy- This focuses on the existing market rate for a company’s product or service; it doesn't take into consideration the price of their product and client demand.

  • Cost-plus pricing strategy- This focuses on the price of manufacturing your product or service or your COGS.
  • Dynamic pricing strategy- It’s a versatile pricing strategy where costs fluctuate supported by client and market demand.
  • Freemium pricing- During this, the businesses supply a basic version of their product hoping that users can eventually pay to upgrade or access a lot of options.
  • High-low pricing strategy- This is often when once an organization at starts selling a product at a high worth, however, lowers the value of the merchandise once the merchandise drops in relevancy.
  • Hourly pricing strategy- This strategy trades time for cash.
  • Skimming pricing strategy- During this, the businesses charge the highest double worth for a given product and lower the value because the quality of the merchandise decreases.
  • Penetration pricing strategy- This is often once the businesses enter the market with an especially low worth, effectively drawing attention and revenue off from extremely priced competitors.
  • Premium pricing strategy- This approach charges a flat fee per project rather than a direct exchange of cash for time.
  • Value-based pricing strategy- Once corporations are worth their product or services supported what the client is willing to pay.
  • Bundle pricing strategy- After you supply 2 or a lot of complementary products or services along and sell them for one worth.
  • Geographic pricing strategy- Products or services are priced based on the geographical location or market.
  • Psychological pricing strategy- It targets human scientific discipline to spice up your sales.

Psychological Pricing (Valuation) Strategy

Psychological valuation strategy conjointly referred to as worth ending or charm valuation strategy suggests that costs that have a psychological impact on shoppers. These costs involve the victimization of ‘9’ and ‘99’ at the top. In this, the left digit is reduced by a common fraction from a round number. For instance Rs. 500 and Rs. 499 could have a whole completely different impact on the human brain. To the brain, Rs. 499 is Rs. 400, that is cheaper than Rs. 500. . In 2005, Thomas and Morwitz conducted an analysis known as 'the left-digit impact in worth noesis.' They explained that “Nine-ending costs are going to be looked as if it would be smaller than a worth one cent higher if the left-most digit changes to a lower level (e.g., $3.00 to $2.99), however not if the left-most digit remains unchanged (e.g., $3.60 to $3.59).”

Impact of Psychological Valuation Strategy on Consumer Buying Behaviour

Nowadays, obtaining loyal customers and sustaining them during a robust market competition became a significant task. However, it's not a straightforward mission for marketers to endure customers and obtain various profits. One in every of the foremost important choices that's done by shoppers in their existence is shopping for the call. This comes about for many reasons, such as: they would like for the product, the alternative would possibly powerfully advocate sure product or shopping for the product as a present. However, introducing new products and services by corporations or developing their existing ones is another target that would be achieved by finding out and analyzing consumers’ behavior. From all of those creating client loyalty and satisfying them is that the target that may well be done by decreasing their prices and gathering most revenue during a correct method. Analyzing the behavior of clients shopping for features an important role in citing the factors that impact on their choices. Besides this, marketers use customers as associate degree indicators for his or her success or failure. That's why finding out buyers’ behavior among researchers and marketers is increasing. In short, it's safe to mention shoppers are the king of the market and might simply create or break a market.

Over years, marketers have used psychological valuation methods so as to convert consumers to get their products as a result of having an extremely stiff market. Psychological techniques in valuation is employed by several businesses so as to sustain in such a competitive world.

The 9-ending valuation strategy could be a valuation strategy, that supported the idea that sure costs have psychological effects on the buyers’ perception. This strategy has been practiced by marketers since 1875. This strategy was used 1st by writer E. Stone, WHO started the Chicago Daily Newspaper to compete with the Nickel Papers of the day with a procurement worth of only 1 cent.

The 9-ending or psychological valuation strategy could be a common follow within the marketplace that uses sure odd and even digits as worth endings (Examples: $.99 in $4.99 and $0.00 in $3.00), and has the facility to influence consumers’ perception of the value of the merchandise. Although the particular origin of the 9-ending valuation isn't terribly clear, however, it's assumed that this valuation strategy has its origin in Chicago, USA. However, the 9-ending valuation strategy has been practiced for quite one hundred years. Since the utilization of 9-ending valuation in marketing has become common in several countries. Although the results are to some extent contradictory across product classes, the success of 9-ending costs appears to be valid, particularly concerning the inexpensive products that is purchased often. The elemental assumption of 9- ending valuation is that, costs are set slightly below the closest round figure to turn out a better demand than the expected demand at that level.. The 9-ending costs are referred to as psychological costs, magic costs, charm costs, odd prices, irrational costs, intuitive costs, or rule-of-thumb costs within the literature associated with the 9-ending valuation strategy and consumer buying behavior. The economists who study consumers’ behavior are of the read that buyers are worth takers and settle for costs at face price or as given by the producers. Marketers acknowledge that buyers typically smartly assess worth data, decipherment costs in terms of their information from previous shopping for expertise, formal communications (advertisements and sales promotions), informal communications (friends, colleagues, family people), and purpose of purchase. There are 2 distinct effects related to the 9-ending valuation strategy and consumers’ shopping for behavior. The primary one is that the ‘Level impact’ that is additionally referred to as the estimation effect. It highlights the behaviors or elementary processes that lead consumers to twist their perception of the value. for example, one frequent hypothesis regarding level effects is that consumers are inclined to wrong estimation of numbers down, creating a consumer to think that $28.99 is far below $ 30.00 The second is that the ‘Image effects’ that leads a consumer to make perceptions concerning the merchandise or service, store or competition, on the premise of the correct hand digits of the value of the product or services. For example, consumers might imagine that a product with a worth that ends in nine is on a special supply. Each of the recommended level effects could be a depiction of the method buyers’ method data concerning the digits of the value of the product (i.e., their mental processing), whole unrelated to business behavior. As an alternative, the image effects specialize in buyers’ perceptions of the structure behavior. Customers could deliberately try and discover organizations’ intentions once decipherment sure costs or they will, over time, subconsciously notice the correlation between worth endings and quality or discounted products.

A recent study at IIM urban center by Avinash G. Mulky, Prahalad M and Venkateswaran K N in 2014 on worth conclusions and shoppers’ perceptions reveals that for Indian shoppers digit nine-ending worth indicates the higher price and conjointly that the merchandise is on sale and therefore the consumers bear in mind the value ending with the digit 9.

A study within the journal Quantitative promoting and Economics validates the good thing about mistreatment nines in pricing—with a few important qualifiers, noted below. The study compared purchases of women’s clothes discounted to $35 and therefore the same clothing discounted to $39. The study found that twenty-four percent of additional shoppers purchased when the consumer goods were priced at $39, despite the fact that the value was higher.

The study found that if a product has been out there at a unique worth for an extended time, then dynamical to finish in 9 can have a smaller impact than if it’s a replacement product that starts out with a price that ends in 9. It conjointly found that if a product is marked “on sale,” the 9 can have a little impact.

The researchers conclude that the 9 has additional power in situations where the client has restricted info. If there's enough info for the client to suspect that the 9 is getting used to controlling the sales selections, the client is a smaller amount doubtless to shop for.

For example, setting the value of a watch at rupees199 is verified to draw in additional shoppers than setting it at rupees two hundred, despite the fact that truth distinction here is sort of little. One rationalization for this trend is that customers tend to place additional attention on the primary variety on a tag than the last.

Socio-Demographic Factors

The factors that influence the consumers socially are referred to as socio-demographic factors. These influence the consumers to travel for 9-ending costs or psychological costs to shop for a product or service. These factors represent age, income, lifestyle, level of education, employment standing, profession, legal status, gender, and family size. Gerontologists and psychologists specialized in psychological features have usually unquestionable that relative to younger adults, older adults seem to exhibit bigger use of schema-based as hostile careful process methods. In alternative words, older consumers bank additional on experiments than younger consumers. The low educated and high financial gain consumers are expected to interact in experimental informatics as a result of, they need less ability to actively method the data and fewer motivation to try to.

Psychological factors

The psychological factors like representativeness of the retailers for product & service, the convenience of the product, and anchoring heuristics influence the purchasers to travel for 9- ending choices. The representativeness and therefore the convenience of the product influences the purchasers with a positive perspective that leads them to shop for the product and repair of 9-ending costs. The anchoring heuristics sit down with the customer’s tendency to just accept and accept, the primary piece of data received before creating a sale call. That initial piece of data is that the anchor and sets the tone for everything that follows. As an example, a distributor would possibly recommend a worth for a product and therefore the client can try and negotiate down from that worth, though the recommended value is quite the previous value.

The 9-ending costs have a bigger influence on the consumer's buying behavior. The results indicate that the shoppers undoubtedly settle on 9-ending costs. Indeed, low concerned shoppers (especially those with an occasional indulgent and symbolic involvement profile), low income, low educated, and younger shoppers are vulnerable to selecting the 9-ending choice. It's conjointly found that the magnitude of these 9-ending worth effects depends upon the value level of the product and therefore the positioning of the brands. Overall, like Bamgartner and Steiner, we have a tendency to argue that customers are heterogeneous in their preferences for 9-ending costs. If an extension of this notice that 9- endings will have a big influence on the amount of sales of the product. Sure knowledge suggests that, if a specific rating strategy, i.e. 9-ending rating strategy generates higher sales and revenue, then this could be used unendingly by the managers. The managers of retail stores ought to be aware that, it's potential for consumers to own a preference for round costs, instead of odd ones particularly once they have difficulties in forming a reference worth. Also, the managers should take knowledge of the chance that an odd rating strategy tends to cause a discounted-price image once round costs are used. That's to mention that, the impact of the 9-ending rating strategy is more practical once it's used for fast-paced trade goods and therefore the even rating strategy features the potential of being economical for luxury or high-end shopper products. The psychological rating or 9-ending worth features a tendency of providing important implications for the positioning of retail merchandise. The marketers should bear in mind that, the psychological rating or 9-ending rating technique alone doesn't sell a product or service. Having a healthy sales rapport or relationship with customers conjointly contributes within the marketing of the product, however psychological rating or 9-ending worth conjointly enhances the marketing methods. The rating selections got to represent an intensive competitive intelligence and analysis, a robust understanding of the market, and most significantly, the culture of consumers. The 9-ending rating is also the simplest suited a retail business, however, care should be taken to confirm that the rating strategy selections are totally tested to look at its viability within the market before it's enforced.


It is concluded that the psychological pricing strategy is an augmentative strategy that companies can adopt to leverage their brands and sales volume in the potential markets. It elaborates on the theoretical, conceptual, and practical aspects of the psychological perception of price on consumers’ buying behavior. It has provided ways about, how psychology is applied by marketers in the pricing of goods and services. The psychological pricing or 9-ending price influences perceptions of the consumers on different categories of goods such as FMCG & Home Appliances and determines their purchasing habits. The study concludes that socio-demographic factors like age, income, lifestyle, level of education, employment status, profession, marital status, gender, family size, and the psychological patterns such as representativeness of the outlets for products & services, availability of the products and anchoring heuristics of consumers influence them to choose the 9-ending price that lays an impact on their attitude which make them to buy the products or service.

07 July 2022
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