Undrstanding Cultures And Etiquettes

Indians are known to be philosophical, relaxed and flexible. They tend to adapt and adjust to their surroundings and to other people’s needs.

They like to talk, gossip and engage in long discussions. They indulge in conspiracies and watch soap open dramas. Talking is one of Indians’ favourite activity. They talk about almost anything. Conversations with the people around them is a must. It’s what keeps the day interesting and it may also add useful knowledge that could be beneficial for them.

Indians are people oriented. They give a lot of time and importance to their families, friends and relatives.

They are extremely hospitable. We treat our guests with utmost respect and hospitality: Atithi Devo Bhavah ( English: 'The guest is God' or 'Guest become God') is a motto that almost all Indians follow with utmost dedication and compassion. Even the poorest of the poor treat their guests to all kinds of luxuries. ” y is valued by Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs.

Indians tend to be very judgemental people. They might assume the worst of people and talk about everybody behind their backs. This can especially get worse in terms of talking about women. Some Indians may still see women as having lower privileges than men.

Indians are very respectful towards their elders. Whenever the young Indians meet their older relatives, they must always touch their feet and greet them. This behaviour shows obedience of Indians towards their elders and their parents.

Personality Traits of China

Chinese have described themselves as harsh, tenacious, unpredictable, materialistic, greedy, secretive, direct, suspicious, stoic, warm, xenophobic, respectful and insensitive. They can be very hard working but also have a reputation for corruption and arbitrariness.

Chinese people have the same repressed feelings, desires and problems" as Westerners. The five traditional blessings are prosperity, happiness, passion, health and good luck. Patience and diligence and family are also highly valued.

Traditional Chinese values include love and respect for the family, integrity, loyalty, honesty, humility, industriousness, respect for elders, patience, persistence, hard work, friendship, commitment to education, belief in order and stability, emphasis on obligations to the community rather just individual rights and preference for consultation rather then open confrontation.

In the Chinese cosmological system the emphasis is on continuity, and the need to fit in with one's surroundings. " He adds that in Western “guilt culture” people are more used to bearing their souls while in Asian ‘shame culture” people are taught to be more discreet lest they bring shame to their families.

The writer Paul Theroux wrote the Chinese he encountered "were very tidy in the way they dress and packed their things, but they were energetic litterers and they were hellish in toilets.

Chinese prefer cautious, experienced and prudent behaviour, sentiments being expressed in a reserved way and well-disciplined types of people.

Personality Traits of Vietnam

The Vietnamese has been described as energetic, sentimental, pragmatic, entrepreneurial, proud, industrious and hardworking. The Vietnamese value system is based on four basic tenets:

  • allegiance to the family,
  • yearning for a good name,
  • love of learning, and
  • respect for other people.

To the Vietnamese, a good name is better than any material possession in this world. To acquire a good name, a man must avoid all words and actions that could damage his dignity and honour.

Moral in the Vietnamese context is a broad term, relating to the practice, manners or conduct of human beings in relation to each other. Moral education is also associated with standards of behaviour justified by people as right and proper, and is to be conducted willingly without the interference of law.

The most important factor in the value system of the Vietnamese is, no doubt, the family. The family is the center of the Vietnamese common man's preoccupation and the backbone of Vietnamese society.

They are timid but hospitable. Vietnamese are timid and not confident in their language skills. They often feel difficult to break the ice with a foreigner at the first time.

Changes in India After Globalization

When India opened up to globalization, growth accelerated to almost 7% on an average, compared to 4% in the first 35 years after independence. Second, there has been a remarkable reduction in poverty, especially in the last 15 years, though it is still too high for comfort. Secondly, entrepreneurship has surged with many new entrants in the corporate sector. Thirdly, the current account has been opened fully while the capital account in India’s trade is substantially open to FDI and portfolio flows in a calibrated manner. Fifth, globalisation has brought with it new technology with quality products that have made jobs more productive. Thanks to globalisation, medical tourism has become a growing sector in India estimated to be worth more than $3 billion. This garnered attention recently when an Egyptian woman shed more than 100 kilograms of weight in Mumbai. Most of all, there is a tangible self-confidence in India’s foreign policy as evident from India’s stance in the ongoing standoff vis-a-vis Doklam against China.

Changes in China After Globalization

China and globalisation are no strangers. The process has been happening for a long time, and it is essential that any business looking to break into China combines a global strategy combined with a market specific approach. As the global economy shifts its focus towards China, new opportunities for businesses to enter the Chinese market are emerging. In other words, the impact of globalisation on China’s economic growth is already being felt. China is rapidly becoming the new champion of economic cooperation, trade and globalisation. As others retreat from the forefront, Chinese businesses are looking to expand and grow into all corners of the world. A Chinese globalisation case study worth following is the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), devised by China’s premier Xi Jinping, which focuses on connecting the vast array of countries that sit within the region. It’s one of the reasons for the growth of globalisation in China, and this Chinese led trade network enables large, medium and small enterprises to realise their potential and trade more simply and expansively around Asia. While businesses are eager to take to the world stage and reap the benefits of globalisation in China, they remain cautious of outsiders. Ensuring you are culturally sensitive will offset some of this reticence and businesses of any size must appreciate that Chinese business culture does not follow western norms.

Changes in Vietnam After Globalization

During the renewal (Doi Moi) process, the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) has implemented an open-door policy to actively integrate in the region and the world, in the spirit of befriending all countries in the international community. Therefore, every change in the world economy, positive and negative, all has certain impacts on the Vietnamese society. Changes in the world economy also influence class relationships, ideology and culture in Vietnam through direct and indirect ways. In terms of direct impacts, alongside with the penetration of the world economy, non-Marxist ideologies and cultures from different countries into Vietnam have directly impacted on the country’s social relations, ideology and culture. Indirect impacts comprise economic ones. The world economy affects the Vietnamese economy and the Vietnamese economy influences social relations, ideology and culture in the country.

Business Opportunities in China Because of Globalization

The Globalization of Chinese Business includes contributions relating to a wide range of manufacturing and service sectors, encompassing such areas as foreign investment, state and private enterprise, human resource management, consumer culture and advertising, financial markets and healthcare. Following an introduction by the editor there are four sections, the first focused on the globalization of Chinese management and the second on the evolution of Chinese management. The remaining sections contain chapters on China’s growing service sector, growing markets and competition, and healthcare system reform. An epilogue by the editor in the remaining section concludes.

Business Opportunities in Vietnam Because of Globalization

The country first opened its economy to foreign firms in the 1980s and investment gathered pace after the US scrapped a war-era trade embargo in 1994. Exports now account for 90 percent of GDP, while the average annual income has surged from some $290 two decades ago to around $2,100 today, according to the World Bank. In Hai Duong the average Ford factory worker can earn more than twice that – although still a far cry from the average American manufacturing wage of about $43,000. “Everything has changed,” said Nguyen Van Tuan, 48, a part-time chauffeur, who grew up in a house made of mud and straw. Today Tuan is proud of his three-storey concrete home – built from $800 Ford paid for his land 20 years ago.

Business and Dining Etiquettes in India

Atithi Devo Bhava’, which means ‘the Guest is God’, is something that Indians heartily believe in. So don’t be surprised if you just casually visit an Indian friend and are then asked to stay over for a meal because that’s a gesture of respect and honour. On the contrary, if you’ve been invited for dinner, it’s quite okay to arrive at your host’s place 15 to 20 minutes after the scheduled time. Arriving early or exactly on time might seem rude as your host will be still in mid-preparation. You’ll also notice that you won’t be served your meal immediately after you arrive. There’s a prior snack session, where you’ll be offered a few drinks and some snacks accompanied by light chit-chat. After the meal is announced, you must wash and dry your hands. Washing your hands is the first step of dining as per Indian etiquette. In restaurants, hotels and urban homes, tables and chairs are arranged for dining, however, in rural areas, some families sit together in comfortable clothes on floor mats made for eating meals. In most Indian homes, generally, the homemaker arranges food for the family on the table and keeps an eye on who needs what, offering and bringing more food. Unlike western culture, there are no ‘courses’ when it comes to serving food in India. All of the food is served in one go. However, you might get to see varying serving styles, depending on the country’s regional cultures and different cuisines. Also, dishes will be served as opposed to individual portions, so the homemaker will either serve the food on your plate or you may help yourself.

Business and Dining Etiquettes in China

Dining etiquette in China can be more ritualised than in many western cultures and the protocol can vary according to the level of formality. Most Chinese business meals are banquets, often with a huge number of dishes on offer. It is considered good manners to serve others before serving yourself and to try everything you are served, without showing displeasure. Wait for your host to start eating before you begin to do so and never take the last piece of any dish, instead showing honour by offering it to others. While it can be acceptable to ask for western cutlery in some major cities, it is best to master using chopsticks, as this is the tradition in China. As most dishes will come with their own individual serving chopsticks, your own chopsticks should not be used to take food from shared plates. If no serving chopsticks are provided, you may need to ‘reverse’ your own chopsticks to take food from communal plates, using the blunt ends, rather than the end that has been in your mouth. Your chopsticks should be used to eat everything on your plate and can be used to cut (rather than spear) larger bits of food. They should be returned to the chopstick rest when you pause for a drink or to speak. Rice is usually eaten from a bowl, rather than a plate, and it is acceptable to bend over the bowl in your hand and push the rice towards your mouth with your chopsticks. It is not, however, acceptable to lift plates from the table to eat. Praise the food and your host’s good taste throughout the meal, leaving business matters aside and be sure to thank them at the end.

Business and Dining Etiquettes in Vietnam

Vietnamese usually have breakfast, lunch and dinner without tea or coffee break in between. Because most Vietnamese are early risers, breakfast is eaten before 9, though many restaurants serve breakfast until much later. Foods for breakfast are as diverse as you can imagine. Some of the most popular are the “notorious” pho- noodle soup; baguette stuffed with pate, bbq porked and veggies; rice congee with minced pork; banh cuon (rice crepes); xoi (sticky rice). Contrary to the Western diet, breakfasts in Vietnam involves more salt than sugar. Lunch is served from 12-1 p. m. Most office workers have their lunch at one of the com bui store where they can choose a main dish – fish, beef, pork, chicken or tofu with side vegetables and steamed rice. Some others order lunch box from a nearby restaurant if they want to avoid the heat and traffic. Lunch in Vietnam is quick yet does not lack any nutrients.

Dinner is the main meal where family gathers and reports back their day. Women are usually responsible for preparing the meal, with or without the help of their mother or daughters. Some better-off family has a dining table while the rest, though you may find it bizarre, have dinner on the ground floor. It is Vietnamese tradition to share food while eating. As a result, the whole family circumvents a tray of food, each with a bowl of rice and taking food from the common dish. Dinner food usually includes one or two main dishes such as stewed pork, steamed chicken or fried fish; one dish of boiled or stir-fried vegetable and one bowl of broth. Steamed rice is considered inevitable in most meal. Eating out was not a habit of Vietnamese until recently and nowadays, it is popular in cities and better off family only. Eating out used to take place on the occasion of daddy receiving salary, or family celebrating an achievement or weekend getaway. However, as modern life leads to lesser time and interest for cooking, eating out is on the sharp increase. Vietnamese are both simple and casual. Normal etiquettes apply in dining time and fewer expectations are placed on foreigners. If you are invited to a family dinner, make yourself at home and open your eyes, ears and mind to learn about this special aspect of Vietnamese culture.

11 February 2020
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