Utilization Of The Pineapple Peel Waste


The Malaysian food industry uses fruits as one of the raw materials such as fruit juice product, concentrate, jam and dried fruits, the main waste is the seeds of skin and fruit. The pineapple industry is the oldest agro-based export-oriented industry in Malaysia. The pineapple industry plays an important role in the country’s socio-economic development. During the process of pineapple, core, crown, skin and stem will be removed. As many as 30-50% of the total weight of fruit is produced as waste during canning. Pineapple wastes comprise fruit trimmings produced in large amounts by canning industries throughout the world. Thus, the pineapple manufacturing industry produces large amounts of solid waste consisting of solid and liquid waste.

Food industries in Malaysia especially the processed fruit for new products that can result in wastes can cause an environmental pollution. Approximately, one total pineapple weight is 400g where 60g is peel waste. Pineapple peel waste contained phenolic compound, vitamin A and C and ferulic acid as antioxidant. Pineapple peel waste is a very valuable product, because it contains a lot of high fiber, sugar, protein, antioxidants and phenolic compounds. Pineapple peel waste also provides high potential bromelain enzymes as functional ingredients. The pineapple residue contains high concentrations of biodegradable and suspended solids.

In general, pineapple peel waste is used for soil fertilizers or animal feed as antioxidants or reducing agents and substrate for bio-ethanol production. A large amount of pineapple peel waste is available as sugar-laden waste throughout the world.

Literature review

  • Bromelain enzyme from pineapple peel waste

Bromelain is type of protease enzyme capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds on proteins. Based on previous study, bromelain enzyme that is extracted from rough of pineapple peel for mouthwash to investigate the enzyme activity to inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth. Bromelain, a protease found in pineapples, is also high demand in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. It is used for meat tenderizing, baking, brewing, as well as for the production of protein hydrolysates. The pineapple peel waste contains high level of enzyme. The peel of the pineapple gives the highest yield of enzyme (40% by weight).

  • Bioplastic

Pineapple peel fiber (PAPF) based low density polyethylene (LDPE) green packaging is studied. The rapid increase in plastic production and consumption has caused serious plastic waste problems, in addition to the depletion of landfill due to the high volume ratio of the weight of plastic waste and resistance to degradation. Pineapple peel fiber (PAPF) shows an important role as cheap, showing superior properties and environmentally friendly biocomposite as fiber reinforcement. Cellulose that contain in pineapple peel is the main composition that can be extracted by refulexing with acidic or alkali solution. Cellulose purity can be converted into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by tightening. Application of pineapple peel bioplastic may be a is green packaging.

  • Bioethanol from pineapple peel

Bioethanol can be an alternative energy source in the future. These are produced from high economic materials such as tapioca starch and molass. The initial cost of these ingredients is high. Agricultural waste such as straw, soft wood, pineapple peel which has high cellulose and hemicellulose content can produce bioethanol. Pineapple peel waste is rich of cellulose, pectic substances and hemicelluloses. This is alternative way to replace of fuel energy resource. The discarded pineapple peel as waste having high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values that can cause a pollution problem. With pineapple waste, it was used for ethanol production along with Saccharomyces cerevisiae because it is easy available and cheap in cost.

  • Anti-oxidant compound

Nowadays, people have shown an interest in studying the antioxidant content in the waste. All kind of fruits are believed to contain high amount of natural antioxidant properties such as phenol, vitamins, carotenoid and flavonoid.


It is very important to concern about the food waste in bioeconomy in order to utilize the food waste for something that can benefit for the future. There is a need to restore this value-added waste product. It's more efficient for us to be involved in a better way of dealing with these kinds of problems such as food waste. Pineapple peel waste has a lots of benefits that can save the earth from pollution. Pineapple peel waste also is important in bioeconomy for the future.


  1. Ali, R. R., Rahman, W. A. W. A., Jamaluddin, J., Adrus, N., Kasmaini, R. M., Ibrahim, N., … Asli, U. A. (2015). Pineapple Peel Fiber based Biocomposites for Green Packaging. Retrieved from http://eprints.utm.my/id/eprint/61389/1/NorainiAbuTalib2015_PineapplePeelBasedBiocompositesForGreenPackaging.pdf
  2. Chumee, J., & Khemmakama, P. (2014). Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Pineapple Peel: Useful Green Bioplastic. Advanced Materials Research, 979, 366–369. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.979.366
  3. Ibrahim U, N, K., M, S., &S, A. H. (2017). Local Fruit Wastes as a Potential Source of Natural Antioxidant: An Overview. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/206/1/012040
  4. Ketnawa, S., Chaiwut, P., & Rawdkuen, S. (2012). Pineapple wastes: A potential source for bromelain extraction. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 90(3), 385–391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2011.12.006
  5. Khai Lun, O., Bee Wai, T., & Siew Ling, L. (2014). Pineapple cannery waste as a potential substrate for microbial biotranformation to produce vanillic acid and vanillin. International Food Research Journal (Vol. 21). Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/21 (03) 2014/16 IFRJ 21 (03) 2014 Ong 442.pdf
  6. Pornpunyapat, J., Chotigeat, W., & Chetpattananondh, P. (2014). Bioethanol Production from Pineapple Peel Juice using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.875-877.242
  7. Rahmi, H., Widayanti, A., & Hanif, A. (2019). Utilization of Bromelain Enzyme from Pineapple Peel Waste on Mouthwash Formula Against Streptococcus mutans. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 217, 012036. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/217/1/012036
  8. Saraswaty, V., Risdian, C., Primadona, I., Andriyani, R., Andayani, D. G. S., & Mozef, T. (2017). Pineapple peel wastes as a potential source of antioxidant compounds. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 60, 012013. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/60/1/012013
  9. Tropea, A., Wilson, D., Torre, L. G. La, Curto, R. B. Lo, Saugman, P., Troy-Davies, P., … Waldron, K. W. (2014). Bioethanol Production From Pineapple Wastes. Journal of Food Research, 3(4), 60. https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v3n4p60
09 March 2021
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