Compressed Air Based Automatic Solar Panel Cleaning System: Present Theories And Practices
We often deal with unavailability of electrical power at rural areas every time and population are growing day by day and demand for energy is also increasing accordingly. Due to this, technologists are encouraged to develop solar based power. It is most readily available renewable energy, free and has nonpolluting nature. But the output power getting from solar panel is largely influenced due to clouds and dust accumulated on it like mud, leaves, ash, bird feces, air born dust especially in desert regions, etc. So, the overall efficiency gets decreased significantly.
The proposed system deals to enhance the performance of the Solar system with DC/DC converter by analyzing effects of dust on the solar panel due to environmental constraints also provides constant output using PID controller. In some heavy pollution areas, the dust particles are directly deposited on the solar panel, so that most of the light coming from the sun is reflected rather than refracting because of thedust deposited on the panel by making the front portion of the panel shaded. The efficiencies of the panels descend because of the dust depositing even though the panel is tracking the sun. The proposed cleaning process is carried out in stages with involvement of liquids. The cleaning process involves compressed air spray, followed by cleaning through a wiper. An electronically controlled mechanical assembly holds the rollers and guides them along the solar panels. Mark N. Horenstein  Proposes an electrostatic self-cleaning panel system that focuses on Surface electrodes energized by phased voltages produce an electrostatic traveling wave for lifting and transporting dust particles.
An electrodynamic screen (EDS) is formed by interdigitated transparent surface electrodes energized by three phase low-frequency ac voltages in the range of 5–200 Hz and 500–1000 V. EDS can be made self-sustainable with the power output from the PV cell itself. This technology most useful in desert area effectively. Shahzada Pamir Aly  proposed that onboard compressor which sprays jet air on the panel. It is followed by a panel cleaning using spinning foam roller and synthetic duster roller. The system is controlled with an on-board microcontroller and very low electrical power requirements can be met directly using the panel itself. Compressed air is sprayed on the panel with the help of nozzles which removes sand and coarse dust accumulated on the panel. At the same time during this stage this air dries out any unlikely presence of humidity layer over the cover of panel at early hours of the day.
The Ecoppia E4  is a fully autonomous robot that uses microfiber brushes to sweep the dust off of panels. It’s designed for large rows of panels situated in dry and sandy environments. By making use of gravity the brushes move downwards spinning, creating an airflow that helps to blow off the dust. Rutvij P. Kulkarni  proposes Heliotex technology in which Heliotex is an automatic cleaning system that washes and rinses solar panel surfaces. In this technology PV panel detects solar rays not only in east-west direction but also in north-south direction by using dc motor. He proposes DMU (Differential Measurement Unit) which makes the decision from the Microcontroller unit to either clean the panel with the wiper and sprayer mechanism or continue to charge the battery with the battery charger.
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