Hand Hygiene - The Most Vital Involvement To Avoid Diseases
Hand hygiene is the most vital involvement to avoid diseases among people. The medical profession has acknowledged the significance of hand hygiene to avoid infections. (Bolon, M. K., 2016). Individuals should clean their hands regularly with effective antibacterial liquid to maintain hygiene. (Cure, L., & Van Enk, R., 2015). It is considered as a basic hygiene by Global Hygiene Council if individual washing hands for more than six times. (Innes, O. R., 2012).Resident bacteria and transient bacteria are two main groups of microbes that can be detected on the skin. (Pittet, D. 2001). Resident bacteria are microorganisms that usually inhabit outer of the cells of the stratum corneum and the surface of the skin. (WHO, 2009). Transient bacteria are necessarily selected in the way of skin contact with human and objects. By practicing hand hygiene, transient flora can be preventing from spreading to the environment. (Pittet, D., 2001).
According to US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is concluded that up to 80% of all diseases are carried by hands. Earlier study made by Dr. Sham in Singapore, he used more simple methods in to clarify each bacterium on human hands by observing and intelligent assumptions. The bacteria that was discovered was staphylococcus aureus after touching mobile phone and trolley handle. (Chandramohan, G., 2018). Besides, investigation made by Dr. Natasha Bagdasarian at National University Hospital in Singapore, a category of faecal bacteria that found is enterococci on the hands on people after they had touched certain things in public areas. (Chandramohan, G., 2018).
It is proven from the previous research stated in Ethiopia, which by properly taking care of hand disinfection, diarrhoeal diseases can be decrease up to 35%. (Hashi, A., Kumie, A., & Gasana, J.,2017). Antibacterial liquid soap and hand sanitizer are usually substances that maintain hand cleanliness. (Liu, Yuen, Hsiao, Jaykus, & Moe, 2010). Antibacterial liquid soap can decrease the spreading of pathogenic bacteria such as skin bacterial consisting of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa that cause skin infections in healthcare units and household. (Lertsatitthanakom, Manwiwattanakun, Paengnakom, & Khunkitti, 2014). Triclosan as antibacterial agent contain in almost liquid soap are considered to reduce bacteria on skin. (Cottell, Denyer, Hanlon, Ochs, and Maillard, 2009).
Research made by Giuliano, 0.5% triclosan of an active ingredient was found in the liquid soap. (Giuliano, C. A., & Rybak, M. J., 2015).Next, hand sanitizers also popular as a protection from bacteria on hand. The hand sanitizer can be in forms of gel, emulsion, liquid, or foam. (Wegner, J. R., & Littau, C. A., 2018). Based on research from University Medicine Greifswald, Germany, 21 tests related to ethanol at 80% were conducted. As a result, within 30 seconds, viruses were enveloped very effectively. (Kampf G., 2018). Alcohol compositions can destroy germs faster than antibacterial products. (Wegner, J. R., & Littau, C. A., 2018).
There are some of the diseases can be transmitted when people are not seriously taking care of their hand hygiene especially after using the toilets. The diseases are Norovirus, Airborne illness, Nosocomial infections and Hepatitis A. Norovirus is major cause of viral gastroenteritis in people. It is spread instantaneously when people do not clean their hands properly. Airborne or respiratory illnesses are usually transmitted by droplets which are breathed, sneezed or coughed into the air. Nosocomial infections were often being spread by staffs in hospitals. Hepatitis A is a viral infection which cause bad symptoms of liver, jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, and fatigue. It is usually transmitted by food which has been contaminated. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases stated, digesting small amount of polluted faecal matter can cause spreading disease from one individual to another rapidly. (Perkins, S., 2017). Research made by Victoria State Government, poor hand hygiene can cause serious complications such as gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. (Victoria State Government [VSG], 2015).