Influence On The Effect Of Zinc Oxide And Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticlesas

Nano Particles used:

Biodiesel used:

Calophyllum inophyllum (100% bio diesel)

Parent biodiesel preparation:

Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester is extracted from dry seeds via esterification process.

The mixture consist of 95% of methyl alcohol and 5% of sulphuric acid is mixed with Calophyllum inophyllum in a molar ratio of 16:1. After many iterations of heating it is found that heating the mixture for 45min in 60oC.

To reduce the fatty acid in bio diesel sodium hydroxide alkali is added as a catalyst. The optimum ratio is found to be 6:1, 1% weight concentration of sodium hydroxide at 60oC. The methanol content has been removed by heating.

Finally 85% Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel was achieved.

Nano particle solution preparation:

Nano particles are studied under SEM and it is found to be smaller than the nozzle diameter. So it is chosen as it won’t affect the fuel flow. Nano fluid is a mixture of Nano particles and distilled water. The fluid was made by ultra-sonication process at a frequency of 50 to 60 kHz for half an hour. The Nano fluid are made in two different concentrations 50ppm and 100ppm. The fluid colour is found to be white in all four cases 50ppm of zinc oxide and titanium oxide and 100ppm of both Nano particles.

Biodiesel emulsion preparation:

The Nano fluid was mixed with the parent biodiesel (Calophyllum inophyllum) and Nano emulsion was formed. The emulsion contains 93% of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel, 5% of Nano fluids, and 2% of Span-80 by volume. The four fuels were named as CIME-Z50, CIME-Z100, and CIME-T50 CIME-T100 depending upon the Nano fluid mixed in the emulsion. The samples were kept undisturbed in a closed container for three days and there was no phase separation in the fuels. Cetane number is between the bio diesel and the diesel. Calorific value was found to be lower than the biodiesel.

Performance Characteristics:

The fuels are tested for performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and brake specific energy consumption.

It was observed that Titanium oxide performs better than zinc oxide as an oxidizing catalyst.

BTE BSFC BSEC Emission Combustion

Diesel Better than other bio fuels Lowest of all Lowest of all Emission of HC and CO is more than all Incomplete combustion

CIME Lowest among all fuels Highest of all Highest of all Lower HC and CO than Diesel Higher oxygen than diesel so better combustion

CIME-Z50 Better than CIME

lesser than CIME-Z100 Lower than CIME

Higher than CIME-Z100 Lower than CIME

Higher than CIME-Z100 Lower HC and CO than CIME Higher oxygen than CIME so better combustion

CIME-Z100 Better than CIME-Z50

lesser than CIME-T50 Lower than CIME-Z50

Higher than CIME-T50 Lower than CIME-Z50

Higher than CIME-T50 Lower HC and CO than CIME-Z50 Higher oxygen than CIME so better combustion

CIME-T50 Better than CIME-Z100

Lower than CIME-T100 Lower than CIME-Z100

Higher than CIME-T50 Lower than CIME-Z100

Higher than CIME-T50 Lower HC and CO than CIME-Z100 Higher oxygen than CIME-Z so better combustion

CIME-T100 Better than CIME-T50

Lower than Diesel Lower than CIME-T100

Higher than Diesel Lower than CIME-T50

Higher than Diesel Lower HC and CO than CIME-T50 Higher oxygen than CIME-Z so better combustion

Hydrocarbon emission is found to be the least (0.225g/KW-hr) in diesel around 5 Bar of BMEP and in CIME-T100 the least (0.075g/KW-hr) is found to be around 3.75 Bar. It is also observed that due to complete oxidation CO2 emission is more in CIME-T than other fuels. The faster oxidation property causes higher NOx emission than diesel but in nanoparticle emulsions the presence of water reduces the NOx emission than CIME. Smoke emission is low in CIME fuels than Diesel due to complete combustion of fuel.

Combustion Characteristics:

Due to presence of nanoparticles with water causes higher latent heat of vaporisation leading to longer time for vaporisation increasing the fuel accumulation in side cylinder thereby increasing the peak pressure in cylinder than pure CIME fuel. The fuel getting accumulated burns at a time releasing higher heat release rate than diesel. Due to the higher cetane number the ignition delay time is reduced.


It is found that the mixing of nanoparticles in biodiesel increases the oxidation property and so decreases the emission of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Instead increasing the emission of carbon di oxide. The presence of water molecules in emulsion causes higher latent heat of vaporisation reducing the possibility of NOx emission. It also offers almost equal amount of BTE, BSFC, BSEC to diesel.

It can be concluded that the nanoparticle emulsion of CIME is a good alternative for conventional diesel which emits lower the harmful gases.

It has also shown increased performances when compared to pure CIME fuel.

03 December 2019
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