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Mitochondria In Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Patients

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Introduction

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the disease related to endocrine system.It commonly occurs in the women of child bearing age.it affects 4-8% of women.The first report related to Polycystic ovarian syndrome was published in 1935, presented the clinical finding of polycystic ovaries in women and gradually led to the foundation of term “polycystic ovarian syndrome”.

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There are many bodily disorders related to polycystic ovarian syndrome. The main characteristics of PCOS are hyperandrogenism, amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea, anovulatory cycle and presence of multiple cysts in the ovaries of women suffering from PCOS these cysts can be detected through ultrasound examination. Another component of PCOS is Insulin resistance and it affects approximately 30-40% of patients suffering from PCOS. Burgeon In 1980 was the first to find the association of excessive insulin and PCOS, he found that there is strong correlation among the levels of insulin, androgenism, and testosteron in women who are suffering from PCOS. Patients suffering from this disorder have 15%higher Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.insulin resistance that is the major pathalogical factor of PCOS is associated with hormonal imbalance.

Also there is higher risk of hypertension, increase level of plasminogen inhibitor type 1, high concentration of endothelin, cardiovascular disease and abnormal function of endothelial in patients with this disorder. Insulin resistance is also responsible for reduction in the mitochondrial respiration.

Mitochondria

All eukaryotes have mitochondria in their cells and these are essential organelles possessing their own DNA and also have protein synthesis system. 16659 bp are carried by human mitochondrial DNA this mitochondrial codes for (a)2 rRNA, (b) 22 tRNA, (c) 13 mRNA.These RNAs are used in the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Complexes occur in the mitochondrial inner membran and providing the largest portion of the ATP that are produced by the cell. 22 tRNAs which are encoded by mitochondria are used by the mitochondria itself for production of proteins through protein synthesis. Mitochondrial genetic code is not universal in nature so this small no of tRNAs are enough for decoding all codon.

Mitochondria using the process of oxidative phosphorylatoin, produce energy in the form of ATP. ATP is required for most of cellular processes so metabolic health and cellular fat depends upon the function or dysfunction of mitochondria. Due to change in the biogenesis, dynamics and function of mitochondria there occurs insulin resistance and insulin intolerance. Genes which are encoded by nuclear genome and play an important role in the oxidative phosphorylation also shows less expression in women suffering from PCOS.

Further, when contrast with control subject of same age and BMI the patients with this disorder shows reduction in mitochondrial complex 1 respiration for the examination of oxygen utilization in the lecocytes (white blood cells).

11 February 2020

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