History And Outcomes Of Spanish Civil War
I think that this civil war could also be seen as the tension between different ideologist ideas: communism and socialism on one side, and nationalism – and fascism – on the other. As a result, people that liked socialist goals of the Popular Front flocked to Spain and formed the International Brigades. These armies were completely made up of foreigners, including men such as George Orwell, who went to Spain as a reporter.
Though the nationalists were initially outnumbered and only controlled portions of Spain in the north and south, its leaders had soon reorganized their forces and added to their numbers through forced conscription in the territories they controlled. By August, nationalist planes were routinely bombing the capital, Madrid, and these operations intensified when Nazi Germany began aiding the nationalist forces in September 1936. The German Condor Legion, as it was called, provided an auxiliary air force for the Spanish nationalists and aided in the bombing of Madrid. Other foreign powers also helped the Spanish nationalists, including Benito Mussolini in Italy and President Antonio Salazar of Portugal.
While Madrid was being bombed, the republican government left the city in the fall of 1936. In addition the fascist, nationalist, and right-wing groups that had begun increasing their powers were united under the one leader, General Francisco Franco. Franco quickly became powerful by eliminating his enemies from the nationalist movement. The republican government led by the socialists, on the other hand became more disorganised. Azaña reshuffled his cabinet several times, trying to find the right men to lead the republican war and army. Public opinion began to turn against the republicans after a harsh crackdown on rioting workers in Barcelona.
In early 1938, Franco’s forces broke through the republican lines, invading Madrid. This led to massive death and poverty in the population. With these breakthroughs the republicans’ last remaining area of strength was in Catalonia in Eastern Spain. In the Battle of Ebro in the summer and fall of 1938, Franco’s forces defeated the remaining part of the republican army, and Barcelona fell to the nationalists’ hands in January 1939.
In February 1939, General Franco’s nationalist government was recognized by the international community as the official government of Spain, though the war did not officially end until Franco’s troops marched into Madrid in March. putting communists, socialists, and others under major pressure. Approximately 100,000 republican prisoners were either executed or died in concentration camps following Franco’s victory.It is also estimated that over 1 million people died due to the Spanish Civil War.
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