Stars And Their Amazing Features

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Think about your normal daily life and how the sun impacts it. Now think about what it can do and how it was made. These stars are made of giant balls of gas and can live for millions, or even billions of years. Stars are very complicated things that scientists and people have studied and can cause supernovae, are very complicated when they are made, and can be many different colors and intensities.

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Stars can make supernovae that are very powerful and bright. A supernova happens when one of the two things happen, when there are two stars and one star gives the other star too much matter than it can handle and causes the star to explode. The other way is when a star that is big enough and the star has not very much of its nuclear fuel left so the inside of the star collapses in on itself from its own gravitational pull and causes a sudden explosion also known as a supernova. Some stars like ours can not fully become a supernova, because they are not big enough and do not have enough mass to turn into a supernova. When stars explode they shoot out debris which can fly around and happen to come across something else and give mass to that body of matter. Novas are things that are not as serious as a supernova, but they happen when a white dwarf is surrounding a red giant and the white dwarf gets to much matter from the red giant and has a sudden large amount of nuclear reactions. There are two types of supernovae. Firstly, there is where the supernova is possibly just a serious version of a nova and might not be an actual supernova. Secondly, is where there is just a normal supernova. Sometimes when stars explode they do not destroy everything around it, sometimes there is only the core of the star that is left, which is called a Neutron Star. Certain stars explode, but sometimes there is nothing left, not even a neutron star and sometimes a black hole is created. Scientists estimate that there is a supernova every 100 years.

The way stars are born is very complicated, yet is very interesting. Stars are made of photons or little atoms of light that are compressed so much that their nuclei ́s can fuse using nuclear fusion. In the interstellar medium, which is just the space between stars, molecular clouds move around and cause some areas of the molecular cloud to have more matter than others. Some areas that have a lot of matter will collapse into a star and will become bigger and wider until they become a prestellar core, which will later become the core of the star later on. This all happens from nuclear fusion and when it happens the forces of gravity and its push need to be equal, otherwise it will slowly heat up and will start to break up into smaller clouds, but the original one will start to spin and spin until it becomes a protostar. As it gains strength it collapses in on itself and fusion will happen again. If the forces are equal, then 50,000 years later it will start to contract and will keep contracting until it is the size of about 1,000 Au (astronomical unit) and then over the next 50,000 years a disk will form. Eventually the disk will just stop giving the star mass and will form a solar system as planets and debris.

Stars have very many colors and intensities for many fascinating and compelling reasons. Elements that are in stars can emit certain wavelengths of light which cause different colors of light to be able to be seen. A nebula in which the star is in can also differ the colors of light by its density and the components in the nebula. As a star gets hotter the radiated energy increases and as a result causes the wavelengths of light to have the curve shorter and it gets closer to the color blue. So if it gets colder the curve of the wavelengths will get longer and will get closer to the color red. This is also known as Redshift and Blueshift. Astronomy classifieds stars on details like size, temperature, color, and intensity. Most of the stars are divided by the MK system ( Morgan Keenan system) which divides it by temperature with the letters O, B, A, F, G, K, and M. With O being the hottest and M being the coldest. Then it is subdivided again and is put into the number group of 0-9 with 0 being the hottest and 9 being the coldest. Some systems sort stars based on luminosity or light using roman numbers. Stars can also change the color, size, and temperature of the star over a long period of time.

In conclusion, stars have complicated ways of becoming supernovae, being made, and having certain colors or intensities. Stars are really complicated and compelling things and you should remember that they are important in impacting our lives and if we did not have stars our life would be extremely hard. I hope scientists and people generally will want to learn about stars, be interested in them, and most of all honor them. 

10 Jun 2021

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