The Concept Of Time Management, Its Factors & Theories
It is a measurable period during which actions, methods or condition exists or continues. It is a duration which you want for a particular work to be accomplished Time management (North, 2004) as the sets of tasks or events by first evaluating, how much time work will take to be finished, when it should be finished, and then adjust events that would restrain with its achievement so that of completion is reached in the proper time. Time Management isn’t always approximately getting extra things completed in a day; it’s about getting the things that counted most done. Time management is the capacity to determine what is important in life, at work or home and even in our personal lives. In essence, you’re the only one can control of your life.
The concepts of Time Management
Time management begins with the commitment to change, it can be accomplished if goals have been set after which all future work is prioritized based on the way it moves the Individual or organization toward assembling the goals. The worth of time management lies in a fact that persons have too many works they want to do however no longer enough time for the matters they want to do (Macan, 1996). In time management there must be a procedure of disposing of unnecessary wastages of time and targeted on right allocation of time to different activities. (Chatman, 1991) evolved an idea for a time-management training program, which continues to be being used. Critical elements are:
- giving perception into time-consuming activities,
- converting time expenditure, and increasing workday performance by teaching individuals,
- a way to make a plan of each day,
- a way to prioritize duties,
- a way to handle surprising tasks.
Many books and articles had been written to deliver these and same ideas to managers, promising them an extra effectiveness using much less time (Blanchard & Johanson, 1983). (Barling, Cheung, & Kelloway 1996) add that, effective time management is an element in job performance and hence can make a contribution to an organization’s profitability. Engaging in time management, especially planning behaviors can also make a positive contribution to group performance. Furthermore, poor time management related with high stress and strain, (Jex &Elacqua, 1999), emotional exhaustion (Peeters & Rutte, 2005), and health issues (Bond & Feather, 1988).
Also, time management describes the employee’s behavior which is ready to provide supportable use of the employee’s time at durations to perform precise activities. It is defined as a combination of sensitivity for time, the setting of goals, prioritizing duties, and observations outcomes. This definition shows time management as an associate example of self-regulation enabling staff to boost their performance, intelligence and attains professional success (De Vos & Soens, 2008). As an example, time management results in success through reducing stress, maintaining balance, increasing productivity and setting and making an effort to appreciate one’s goals. From this broadened point of view, Individuals can see that time management is essential to expand life’s dimensions (Alay & Koçak, 2002). The researchers on this study will expand the research via exploring the relationship among the time management and job performance.
According to (Orlikowski & Yates 2002), the temporal dimension of work has turn out to be more vital due to expanding global competition and extended the demands for instant availability of services and products. Time management as a behavior aims to obtain the economical use of time and need to be associated with certain useful activities. This definition highlights that the usage of time isn’t always a purpose in itself, and can’t be pursued as a sole factor. Most objectives are on some purposeful activity, like acting a small task or a tutorial duty that’s assigned in manner that means an economical use of time (Claessens & Eerde, 2007). (Claessens, 2004) stated that time management as behaviors that target at achieving economical and effective use of your time, and he introduce that these behaviors have 3 major components.
First element is awareness of past, present and future as per (Kaufman,Lane, &Lindquist 1991), and also the recognition of one’s time use(attitudes, cognitions of time), that assists to complete tasks and duties that match the limit of one’s abilities. (Claessens, 2004) terms this element as time assessment behaviors.
Second element is ways or tools that move toward preparing to use time efficiently (setting goals, developing with tasks, prioritizing, creating disruption lists, grouping tasks) as stated by (Britton &Tesser, 1991) named this element as coming up with behaviors.
Third element is providing a structure for managing time and self-monitoring, that offers an efficient activity of tasks and limited the interruptions by others such as (Fox & Dwyer1995) and (Krediet,1999),(Claessens, 2004) titled this component as observation of behaviors.
Mc Cay developed a concept for a time-management training program, which continues to be being used. Critical elements are: giving perception into time-taking activities, converting time expenditure and expanding workday performance via teaching people how to make daily plans, the way to prioritize duties, and how to maintain surprising tasks. On the opposite hand, (Huang & Zhang 2001) explain the concept of time management as a kind of temperament attribute which makes it possible to be recommended as a means of utilizing and dealing with ones’ time.
Over the year the focus of time management publications and training program has shifted from managers as a major target group to a broad audience of working individuals. The term “time management” is really misleading to be precise; time can’t be managed, because it’s an inaccessible element. Only the method an individual deals with time can be influenced (Claessens & Eerde, 2007). Time management will be viewed as a way of observing and controlling time (Eilam & Aharon, 2003). In this regard, it would be more suitable to talk about self-management with respect to the performance of multiple tasks within a particular time period. However within the literature, the term self-management contains a completely different meaning. It refers to observing and regulating oneself, but without any particular reference to strategies for observing time use.
Therefore we stick to the use of word Time Management in this study. The increasing salience of time is shown in theoretical or practical publications. A number of authors mentioned the need for effective incorporating time in theoretical models and research designs (George&Jones,2000;Wright, 2002).Others point the ways in which employees in organization maintain their time and methods where these efforts can be enhanced. (Macan, 1994).There are 3 principal models of time management, the (Britton& Glynn’s 1989), Huang and Zhang’s(2001) and (Macan’s1994)version of time management.(Britton & Glynn 1989) express time management in 3 factors macros, medium and small levels.
The macro level refers to the selection and prioritization of goals, mid-level tasks containing the creation of goals and sub-targets and also the small level that consists of design and implementation. (Macan’s 1994) model of time management consists of four parts, that are seen to manage the setting of time goals, priorities, mechanisms of your time management and organization choices (Huang & Zhang’s 2001) model of time management contains of 3 dimensions of mental structure and multiple levels; which include the 3 component of behavior, time Management, and also the sense of the importance of your time, which consist of 2 levels: the social value of time- orientation and time-oriented individual value.
On the opposite hand, among the second dimension, the sense of managing over time which consists of setting goals, Planning, prioritization, and allocation of time and feedback. The dimension, among the sense effectiveness of time contains 2 levels: the effectiveness of your time management and effective time management behaviors. It is an essential resource every supervisor should achieve the objectives and goals of an organization. It is so sensitive that it can’t be stored, but can only be spent and as soon as misused it cannot be regained.
(Autumn, 2012) In other hands, a supervisor should have time management capabilities, so that he can stand as a role model for his employee. In spite of all common attention to managing time, a relatively little study has been performed at the processes concerned in the usage of one’s time effectively for example by using of “prime time” to carry out crucial tasks and completing work within deadlines. Furthermore, Individual cannot eliminate the time wasters however steps are often taken to minimize the impact, in different case time wasters are often entirely eliminated as a result of it time is effectively managed and used as planned , rather more of enough utilization of resources within the organization.
Factors of Time Management
Britton & Glynn (1989) develop the three factors of time management, to estimate time management practices are:
- Time planning
- Time attitude
- Time wasters
The Initial issue is time planning, and as an end result it seems to embrace more than a few objects that are associated with planning in the short time period (either interval of the day or among the week) and within the long time (Alay &Koçak, 2002).As (Barling et al. 1996) opinioned that, time planning is connected to job performance under the states of high motivation However, another study indicates that time planning use as one case to estimate grade point average, scholastic took a study freshman and sophomore undergraduates in the scientific field category (Britton & Tesser, 1991). On the other side, Jekale and Tsega (2008) proven that time planning is vital for the development of the improvement and labeled it in four type, which are a bar graph, network diagram, assets unnatural project programming and time planning under uncertainty.
The second issue is time attitudes, this is exceptionally attitudinal in nature (Alay & Koçak, 2002).Time attitudes in agreement with related inside the evaluation of duties that are being done. Time attitude reflects the essential choices of individual identity. And as specified earlier in a similar study by Britton and Tesser (1991), their investigation used time attitude to estimate the possibility of undergraduate students. Alay and Koçak (2002) in their study utilize time attitudes to manage duty and validity of the time management for collegians. Based on Calabresi and Cohen (1968) time attitude shows the essential choices of personal temperament. In addition to, present study associated time attitude as one case of time management with job performance.
(Alay & Koçak 2002) noted that time is wasted as a result of poor time usage habits and an ineffective use of personal time. For instance, sales employees are acutely aware that a few clients are not genuine clients. In addition, growing method that helps them to eliminate ‘time-wasters ‘or to enhance themselves in their work. (Clark, 1983) According to (Chioma & Ekpete 2011) time wasters related to attitudes, behaviors, and habits conducted by educators, researchers, directors, and college students.
Time Management Theories
The theories set forth by scholars and philosophers assist us to recognize the significance of time in every circle of life. Understanding the significance time management is vital for everybody. A conscious control, when forced over the quantity of time spent in doing day-to-day activities, would empower you to divide your priorities and set a due date for them. Hence, you have the capacity to achieve them within the limited time. Time management is feasible by using expert the theories, ideas, and strategies proposed via scholars and philosophers who have understood its importance. Unless you have a reasonable idea with respect to the purpose of your life in the organization, one can’t outline a successful time management strategy. Whether it’s your personal or professional life, you should recognize what to do and what sort of time you will take.
The decisions and strategies are based upon your work and the quantity of time required in completing. We will discuss with the most famous theories that assist people to recognize the significance of time management in each circle of life. Theories of time management developed by different authors help the people to know about the value of time and provide the basic ways of managing time in relation to job performance.
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