The Main Factors Of Violence Against Women
Domestic violence is alarmingly prevalent especially against women in many industrialized nations. Patriarchal ideology or gender traditionalism promotes to maintain subjugation of women in superior-inferior which is male-dominated and women serves as cheap labor. Throughout the study, representative sample of 770 married Bangkok women had been investigated by using survey questionnaire. The main target of this research is to figure out the association between gender egalitarianism, marital restraint, resource dependency, decision making ability and domestic violence against women. It employed cross-cultural research and stressed that religion and family interrelated by assigning role of male as provider and major-decision maker in family context without questioning. Based on Buddhist doctrines, gender inequality shown by women portrayed as morally inferior and lower karma which imparts women to suffer courageously hence can be reborn as man in next life. In accordance with family status, women carved as secondary, selfless and willing to sacrifice for the sake of family. Consistent with disadvantages of women culturally and stucturerally, it is beneficial to study this topic in urban Thailand because voices of women often being ignored therefore effective and instant contribution must be made against married women.
As delineated previously, domestic violence rooted in gender traditionalism due to patriarchal tradition. According to Ekachai 2008, being born as women is bad karma therefore they need to stay patience and compassion until the end of life. Feminist approach argue here because family honor and avoidance of expression of feelings coerced women to accept the unfair treatment. In addition, Quicker (2002) demonstrated that husband allowed to apply corporal punishment on wives and further sell them to others. Furthermore, Goode’s resource theory (1971) mentioned that education qualification, occupational prestige and family background was having inverse relationship with domestic violence. Status contradictory among women and men will menace men’s masculine identity and provoke male-domination. On top of that, Belknap (2007) described that male take over control in intimate relationship and often lead to social isolation. Subculture and exchange theory take place where the first outlined that most population follow the culture norms rather than public policy while the latter depicted that human beings engaged in action that reward them and escape anything that harm them such as cultural approves for males to use violence to maintain authority with no heavy penalty released.
However, aforementioned of feminist theory emphasized significance of masculinity, authoritative and gender inequality but overlooked the perspective of initiator and outcome of the action. Various abusive strategies of perpetrator implied their own behavior such as undergoing traumatized childhood experience and imitate it through social learning effects.
So, aggressive behavior adopted as result because modeling and reinforcement anticipate them to learn without negative sanctions given. Secondly, cross-cultural design prevents us from scrutinizing precise causal association engaged in domestic violence against women. Also, due to scope of study limited to husband on wives, mutual combat and common couple violence cannot be further explored. Widespread of stereotype made women portrayed as powerlessness and when violence occur, male became the perpetrator because women carried act of self-defense or desperation which known as gender paradigm.
Evoking deep, psychological concerns, domestic violence is an exceptionally challenging situation. Therefore, proactive safety planning and cautious minimization of abuse must be done to induce feelings of hope on female in the context of magnificient urgency and danger. Criminal prosecutions, changing social attitudes and reestablish new value and thinking to elucidate violence. Due to the framework of study included moderation effects of cultural context, women should be more independent in terms of socioeconomic aspect to increase dysfunctional communication and decrease violence rate.