The Problems Of Air And Water Pollution In Manila

'Sustainability is no longer about doing less harm. It's about doing more good', Jochen Zeitz. Sustainability has not inflexible definition but many meanings that I researched similarly means the ways to have a better life. To exemplify, Sustainability means living within the resources of the planet without damaging the environment now or in the future. There are three main pillars of sustainability including people, planet and profit. There is no denying that sustainability is a crucial role in this world since it assists to improve the environment, society, and people to be balanced. Moreover, cities are the place where people are born, grow up and live, and the reason why sustainability has become more momentous in every city is a moving target that encourages constant improvement. The RFSC or the Reference Framework for European Sustainability is made for European people, which can freely access without any cost. In each letter has its definition about community, R for respect, F for flexibility, S for support, and C for cooperation. The utilization of RFSC can improve the sustainability of the major cities, which can easily access through the internet. This will help most cities in Europe because European people can acknowledge through the website that the government would like to provide and inform their Europe’s citizens. Manila is one of the least sustainable cities in the world. Therefore, this term paper will mainly focus on the environment in Manila in terms of air pollution and water pollution.

“If you pollute the air, the air will pollute you”, Tejada. The primarily severe circumstance that caused unsustainability in Manila is air pollution. As we know, air pollution has become numerous problems in every country. According to Health Care Without Harm Executive Direct Raman San Pascual, “Air pollution is not only the ecological problem but it also affects people’s health”. Air quality percentage in Manila is approximately fifteen percent which is very poor. This evidence can illustrate that the air quality in Manila can easily be detrimental to the environment especially, people’s health. Air pollution is a harmful chemical, especially it will impact the increase of populations. The heavy concentration of particulate PM2.5 in the city’s air has also raised health alarms. Dr. Mylene Cayetano, head of UP Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology said that “ they measured both particulate matter (PM) 2.5, or particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter, and PM 10, particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter”. These particles can remain longer and spread farther in the air than normal dust. It can also penetrate deep into the lungs and the blood resulted in more people suffering from breathing problems and heart diseases. Air pollution, that is produced from residents, is increasing Manila has overpopulation at least twelve million, with twelve thousand six hundred people to each square kilometer. In fact, people have more vehicles on the roads to increase traffic congestion and smoke from fuel combustion of vehicles such as cars and motorbikes. All of them release toxic smoke into the atmosphere like carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are the cause of the greenhouse effect. Also, air quality can damage people's health in Manila. According to the WHO (the World Health Organization), Manila is in the third-highest number of deaths because of air pollution, 2.2 million were caused by breathing problems and heart diseases. Air pollution can also have affected natural such as climate change, seawater level, and acid rain. In addition, according to Perez (2019), wrote that climate change is the cause of food insecurity, with crop yields expected to drop by a further 25 percent and fish stocks to decrease by 40 percent. Climate change has already affected crop yields in the Philippines which has, in turn, caused food shortages. As a consequence, the malnutrition rate in the Philippines has gone up to 33.4% from 30.3% in 2013. To protect our life from pollution, first is shifting to cleaner car fuel. According to Ranada's work (2014) says that 'Euro 4' is an alternative fuel. It contains less sulfur than 'Euro 2.' The sulfur content of Euro 2 exceeds Euro 4 ten times (500/50) to be compared. Consequently, fewer particles, sulfur content, will emerge when cars are emitted. Secondly, solving traffic problems, people should travel using public transportation to address traffic issues, and individuals should live close to their office to reduce their transportation time. Bambike produces handmade bamboo bicycles and organizes bicycle tours to encourage the use of bikes. SunEtrike an electric tricycle to move cyclists in a cleaner, more comfortable and more cost-effective manner.

Another negative aspect that affects citizens in Manila is related to the water pollution issue. These regions include the waters off the Philippine Complex Cultural Center, which was reported in the fourth quarter of 2015 as having a most likely 1.6 billion fecal coliform contamination (MPN) per 100 milliliters (ml). Other hazardous regions for swimming and other skin contact are the 850 million MPN/100 ml waters off the Mall of Asia; MPN 2 billion Navotas Fishport; MPN 1.1 billion Philippine Estates Tollways Authority; and MPN 900 million Luneta Park. Gordove said 'Usually, households' water waste goes directly to the storm drain because they don't have a septic tank. Storm drains are networks of pipes designed to take away excess water on roads. These eventually drain into bodies of water but they aren't built to treat sewage. That's where the problem starts'. According to Rhonda Marrone, The rivers in Manila's capital city have recently got some attention. For example, the Marilao River running through the Province of Bulacan and into Manila Bay was on the world list of the 10 most polluted rivers. The river is contaminated with several kinds of heavy metals and chemicals from tanneries, gold refineries, dumps, and textile factories. It's one of the 50 dead rivers in the Philippines. A group of nine Filipino painters painted watercolor portraits with sterilized pigments of six polluted rivers in Manila in another instance. The painted images are day-to-day events, children playing on the river, people playing boats, and families fishing. 'People who enjoy water don't know the hazards,' said the exhibit's curator, Cid Reyes. It's one of the 50 dead rivers in the Philippines. In another instance, a group of nine money from selling the pictures keeps cleaning up the rivers, reducing water pollution in the Philippines. There are several serious issues in Manila, and the environment is one of the essential problems. It is obvious that air pollution can affect people who live in this city in terms of healthcare, air quality, and climate change. Moreover, water pollution is a significant factor that can be harmful to citizens and their surroundings. In my point of view, the government can control the population because this is the main cause that decreases environmental resources. Furthermore, they should have an efficient method to cope with the waste management issue.

14 May 2021
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