The Relationship Between Edward I And Scotland

The point that achieved a longer period of stability between England and Scotland in the Middle Ages was thanks to the Anglo-Scottish agreement of 1217, establishing peace between the two kingdoms that would last for 80 years.

In 1290, Scotland had a huge succession crisis in hands. The king Alexander III of Scotland died and his only heir, Margaret, The Maid of Norway perished due to a sickness while sailing over Scotland. Back then, King Edward I was renowned for his skills in the art of war and was a recognised expert on legal diplomatic matters, a very respected figure. Because of this, the Guardians of Scotland invited King Edward I of England to select their new ruler. This may have not been a sensible idea, but the fact is that both kingdoms coexisted peacefully for a long time. However, in order for Edward to choose the next ruler of Scotland, he insisted to be granted feudal power over Scotland, meaning that the king of the Scots answers to the English king, and therefore, Scotland would be under English rule. This was by no means a stab on the back, and Edward got his way. In 1292 he elected John Balliol as the new Scottish ruler. After King John of Scotland swore homage to King Edward of England, the Guardians of Scotland formed a council to advice their ruler. They would not be going to leave Edward to walk away with it and take their freedom.

Later on, in 1295 the Scots signed a mutual aid treaty with France known as Auld Alliance. This was the beginning of the armed conflict. Scotland was invaded and defeated by Edward I in the Battle of Dunbar in 1296, stripping them of their national symbol, the Stone of Scone, and the Barons of Scotland paid homage to the King of England.

Although this first rebellion was easy to put down, the ones to come were less so. Revolts broke out in Scotland and on 11th September at the Battle of Stirling Bridge, a new character was a fundamental piece. William Wallace defeated English forces led by John de Warenne. Edward underestimated the Scots, and that would cost a high price to him as in subsequent battles victory was on Scotland’s side. Eventually, king Edward realised that this matter was something he needed to deal with personally. In fact, once the king took matters on his hands, he supressed rebellions and revolts. In 1298, Edward invaded Scottish soil again, he was successful. Further campaigns by Edward in 1300 and 1301, led to a truce between the Scots and English. Ultimately, in 1304 the last major Scottish stronghold, Stirling Castle, fell to the English; most Scottish nobles now paid homage to Edward. Shortly, William Wallace was put to death in 1305. The battles, however, would continue, but for Edward I of England, now aged 68, did not see the end of it and in 1307 he died. It was due to Edward’s death that the Scots increased their numbers and grew stronger behind their new leader, Robert Bruce, now king of Scotland.

07 July 2022
Your Email

By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and  Privacy statement. We will occasionally send you account related emails.

close thanks-icon

Your essay sample has been sent.

Order now
Still can’t find what you need?

Order custom paper and save your time
for priority classes!

Order paper now