The Utilization Of Red Seed Guava And Rosella Flower As Source Of Vitamin C
Research aims at making instant drinks by using red seed guava and roselle flowers source of vitamin C by using a vacuum oven. The research was conducted in laboratory of processing and management of agricultural products and instrument laboratory, agricultural product technology, faculty of agriculture, Universitas Katolik Santo Thomas Indonesian. This research was conducted with factorial random design with two treatments, namely:
Factor I. The concentration ofdextrin withK code consists of 4 levels, namely: K1 = 40%; K2 = 50%; K3 = 60%; and K4 = 70%.
Factor II. Drying with L code, consists of 4 levels, namely: L1 = 15hours; L2 = 20 hours; L3 = 25 hours and L4 = 30 hours.
Parameters analyzed were rendement, vitamin C content, total acid, organoleptic value and water content. The best quality was obtained from rendement, vitamin C content, total acids, organoleptic value and water content with 60% dextrin concentration with 25 hours drying time. Key words: red seed guava, rosella flower, sucrose, dextrin, instant powder, vitamin C content, total acid, organoleptic value and water content.
Along with the high demand for nutrisari that comes from fruits and the busy public, then make fresh drinks that come from fresh fruit did not have time, while vitamin C is needed to maintain body fitness. The fruits of red guava contain lots of vitamin C. Based on the results of the study, guava contains vitamin C sweet oranges. The content of vitamin C is most abundant in the skin and flesh, especially after the fruit will mature. Other benefits of guava for health include weight loss, diabetes medications, lowering high blood pressure, reducing the risk of cancer, swollen gums and loose teeth, as a remedy beyond wound healing, convulsions, epilepsy, bacterial infections and constipation. Guava is also able to lower levels of cholesterol in the blood and is very useful for patients with dengue fever. Rosella flowers have the benefit of preventing diseases as useful to prevent cancer and inflammation, controlling blood pressure, blood circulation and launching a bowel movement. In the experiment also found that the extract of roselle reduce the effects of cancer, prevent the formation of kidney stones, and slow the growth of fungi/bacteria/parasites cause high fever. Rosella can also be used as a natural red dye, both in the food industry and cosmetics. Roselle are part of the plant that can be processed into various food products. The flower petals of this plant are dark red, thick, and watery. Roselle flowers that taste very sour is usually processed into jelly, sauce, tea, syrup, jam, pudding, and sweets.
Previous research that sugar has been done in the manufacture of instant passion fruit essence but the result is formulated and when drying takes a long time, so the natural color of passion fruit cannot be maintained. Dextrin is a group of high molecular weight carbohydrates which is a modification of starch with acids. Dextrin is easily soluble in water, faster dispersed, not viscous and more stable than starch. The function of dextrin is as an active food carrier such as flavor and dye which require water soluble and filler as it can increase product weight in powder form. With respect to the properties of dextrin, it can be used to make instant juice from a mixture of guavas and rosella flowers of high quality. With the growing and increasingly busy society, the need for food products and instant drinks of higher quality.
The research is expected to answer the problem by way of providing or making instant fruit powder from a mixture of red guava and rosella flower. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of dextrin concentration and drying time to the quality of instant fruit powder with the use of red guava and rosella flower as a source of vitamin C. The purpose of this study is to determine the manufacture of instant drink from red guava with rosella flower to be instant drinks as a source C and overcome the abundant fruits and flower rosella, it can be made in the form of instant so it can last for one year, then the selling price can be maintained normally.
Materials and Methods
The ingredients used in this research are guava, rosella, jodium, NaOH, indicator and deksrin. The tools used in this research are 5 ml biuret, measuring cup, 5 ml volume flask, blender, measuring flask, filter paper, 50 ml erlenmeyer flask, funnel, vacuum oven, vacuum pump, stainless plate, analytical scales, desiccator, stainless spoon, beaker glass, refrigerator and plastic filter.
The data of instant fruit powderquality analysis of a mixture of red seed guava with rosella flower which includes rendement, vitamin C content, total acid, organoleptic value and moisture content. Rendement on fter the drying completed the constant weight is measured and the rendement percenge. Analysis of vitamin C by 10 ml powder material is taken and then inserted into flask (100 mL pluss distilled water up to the mark tera while shaken, and then filtered with filter paper). The filtrate was taken 10 mL erlenmeyer and then inserted into 3 drops of 1% starch. Titrated with 0, 01N iodine solution until the color changes into a bluish. 1 mL iodium 0, 01 N= 0, 88 mg vitamin C analyzed according to the methode of AOAC. Total acids on determination of total acids can be done by 10 mL sample plus 2-3 phenolftalein indicator drops 1% and then titrated using 0, 1 N NaOH until the titration end point is reached, in which pink is formed permanently. The total acids is calculated as percentage of lactic acid. Organoleptic value on organoleptic assesment value is based on the sensory value based on the senses (appearance and flavor). Organoleptic assesment is performed on weighing as much as 5 g material and dissolved in 150 mL of water. In the organoleptic test sample for color and flavor on using hedonic test method (hedonic with scale 1-5), where samples are presented randomly to the panelists determines the quality of material being tested. Value given are the following panelists. Water content on water content analyzed according to methode of AOAC.
Results and Discussion
The treatment of L2 is very different from L3 and L4. The treatment of L3 differed significantly with L4 treatment. While the highest yield was found in L1 treatment which was 92, 50% and the lowest rendement wasL4 treatment which was 89, 23%. The relationship between the length of drying and the recovery of instant drink from the mixture of red guava with rosella flower followed the regression equation. The amount of yield produced is influenced by the amount of flour formed. Rendement instant fruit powderred guava flower with rosella flower are composed of various components – components that form like solids, water, and other components such as ash and minerals. Water and volatile compounds present in the flour effect of the yield. Evaporation of water and volatile compounds will further decrease the yield of instant flavor of instant red guava with rosella flower.
The K2 treatment differs very significantly with K3 and K4. The treatment of K3 differed significantly with K4 treatment. While the highest yield is in K4 which is 93, 25% while the lowest yield is at K1 that is equal to 88, 43%. The relation between dextrin concentration with sucrose yield of instant juice of mixture of red guava with rosella flower following the regression equation. The value of instant fruit powderextract from the mixture of red guava and rosella tends to rise with the higher concentration of dextrin. This is because the higher the concentration of the filler in this case added dekstrin the concentration of essence juice of instant juice from the mixture of red guava with rosella less. The increased concentration of dextrin added can increase the yield and density of pollen rendemen instant red guava drink with rosella flower. Rendement of guava powder with rosella flower is increasing with increasing concentration of filler material. It is assumed that more fillers are added then the total amount of solids in the juice of instant from the combination of red guava and rosella flower increasingly high so that the increase in the amount of rendement. The higher the total solids on the dried material then the resulting yield will also be higher.
The treatment of L2 was very different from L3 and L4 treatment as well as L3 treatment was very different from L4 treatment. The highest vitamin C yieldwas found in the L1 treatment and the lowest vitamin C was found in L4 treatment.
Vitamin C is the most unstable of vitamins compared to other substances or vitamins. Vitamin C is easily oxidized when exposed to air and this process is accelerated by heat, rays, alkalis, enzymes, oxidizers, and copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) catalysts. Vitamin C is easily oxidized because its compounds contain highly reactive hydroxy (OH) functional groups in the presence of oxidizing hydroxy groups to oxidation into carbonyl groups. The oxidation process will be inhibited when vitamin C is in very acid or low temperature.
Treatment of K2 is very different from the treatment of K3 and K4. Treatment of K3 differed very significantly with K4 treatment. The highest vitamin Cyield was found in the K1 treatment and the lowest vitamin C yield was found in the K4 treatment. Because of the high concentration of dextrin in instant drink from the mixture of red guava with rosella will damage the vitamin C. This is because vitamin C is stable in acid state. Because of the higher concentration of dextrin, the residual acid will be more and more which causes the total value of instant drink acid from the mixture of red guava with rosella flower decreasing and causing the decreasing of vitamin C content.
The duration of drying has a very significant effect (p> 0. 01) on the total acid of instant drink from the mixture of red guava and rosella flower. The different treatments L1 is not significant with L2 but very different from L3 and L4 treatment. The treatment of L2 was not significant with L3 but very different from L4 treatment. The treatment of L3 was not significant with L4 treatment. The highest total acid yield was found in the L1 treatment and the lowest total acid yield was found in the L4 treatment.
The total decrease in acid is caused by evaporation during the drying process. Organic acid which are soluble compounds in water, so with the evaporation of water then the content of organic acids contained in instant drink from a mixture of red guava with rosella flower also evaporate. Losing the organic acid content from the instant drink from the mixture of red guava and rosella petals further decreases the total acid content in the juice instant from the mixture of red guava with rosella flower.
The drying time has very significant different effect (p> 0, 01) on organoleptic value of instant fruit powder mixed with red guava and rosella flower. Table 1 shows the treatment of L1 is very significant with L2, L3 and L4. The treatment of L2 was very significant with L3 and L4 and L3 treatment was very different from L4 treatment. The highest organoleptic value was found in L4 treatment that was 7. 63 and the lowest oraganoleptic value was L1treatment which was 4. 94. The relationship between temperature and organoleptic value follows the quadratic equation. This is due to browning reactions in instant drinks from a mixture of red guava with rosella flower during the drying process. The flavor and aroma changes are caused by changes in terpene compounds and hydrocarbons in instant drinks from a mixture of red guava and rosella flower while have volatile or easily damaged properties by light or heat. Drying can lead to changes in color, texture, nutrient content, volatile aroma, which will reduce the value of organoleptik instant drinks from a mixture of red guava and rosella. Temperature has a greater influence on nonenzymatic browning, in which each 5 hour rise in drying speed of browning process increases between 4-8 times which causes the organoleptic value to decrease. High temperatures cause sugars and amino acids (Maillard reactions) to increase that affect the color and wanted flavor of the foodstuff.
The K2 treatment was very different from the treatment of K3 and K4 as well as the K3 treatment was very different from the K4 treatment. The highest organoleptic value was found in K4 treatment and the lowest organoleptic value was found in K1 treatment.
The drying time has very significant different effect (p> 0, 01) on the water content of instant fruit powder drink from the mixture of red guava and rosella flower. The treatment of L1 is very different from the treatment of L2, L3 and L4. The treatment of L2 was very different from the treatment of L3 and L4 as well as the treatment of L3 was very significant with L4 treatment. The highest water content was found in L1 treatment that was 3. 93 and the lowest water content was found in L4 treatment that was 0. 88. The relationship between the concentration of temperature and the water content of instant drinks from the mixture of red guava with rosella flower followed the linear regression equation. The increase in drying time will also decrease the water content of instant drinks from the mixture of red guava and rosella flower, because the longer drying the moisture content of the material will be lower due to the speed of drying will be increasingly broken of the hydrogen bond between the dextrin molecule with water. Factors affecting the drying of food products are among others the drying temperature used, the length of drying time, the drying method and the material properties.
The rate of reabsorption of instant drink powder from a mixture of red guava with rosella flower tends to increase with increasingly high concentrations of dextrin. This is because the hydroxyl group contained by dextrin is more attached and absorbs water through hydrogen bonds. The hydroxyl group in dextrin can increase water in a red powdered instant guava powder with rosella flower.
From the research result, the effect of drying and dextrin concentration on the quality of instant fruit powder from the mixture of red guava and rosella flower can be concluded that dextrin concentration has significant effect on the quality of instant fruit powder.
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