The Way Globalization Played a Role in Indian Street Food

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Indian cuisine is a diverse cuisine and is both exciting and intimidating. It is a cuisine that is made by using different method of cooking. It has different ambrosial spices that make this cuisine even more tempting and strong. Nearly 5000 years ago, when Aryans first came to India and settled down in the Indus Valley they wanted to cultivate rice but due to no or very less rainfall they couldn’t help grow it so they started cultivating wheat. The carvings and paintings show the use of stone mill which was to grind wheat to make it into a flour form. Before the Portuguese introduced sugar in India, honey and fruits were used as a sweetening agent. Chilly was also introduced by the Portuguese and has become the staple of Indian cuisine and makes it known in the world. 

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In the Indian subcontinent there are approximately 1.3 billion people and there are mainly four types of regional cuisine being Northern cuisine, Southern cuisine, Western cuisine and Eastern cuisine. Indian cuisine uses whole palette flavors fairly like sweet, sour, spicy and hot with an amazing taste in one particular bite. Hence, makes Indian cuisine different and better from others. Hinduism and Islam are two most dominant religions of India therefore; the food is influenced by them. For example, Hindus practice mainly vegetarian food whereas the Muslims consume meat. Some dishes likes biryani, kebabs, rogan josh, etc are prepared by Muslims. In India where there is scarcity of water, dairy products like milk, butter, buttermilk, etc are used. Clarified butter is known to be healthy and is used any dish and provides a different taste.  Vegetarian was majorly known to be staple food for Indians as there were majority of Hindus who didn’t consume meat and meat products. After the Mughals came in to the picture, non-vegetarian food then became popular and was loved by most of the people. Indian food is known for its spices and condiments which make it different. 

India is known for its diversity that include so many religions, caste, class and the food that is related to each sector. Indian food differs by region and religion. Food has become a marker of religion and social identity. In north, people eat more flat bread whereas in south people consume rice. In coastal states like Kerala, Karnataka or Bengal, people consume a lot of sea food. Many Hindus avoid eating beef and similarly many Muslims avoid consuming pork. Also, mostly the Hindu, Jain, Buddhist are vegetarian. Caste system and class system was such an idealistic concept back then. This divided Hindu religion in four castes Brahmins, Kshtriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. Islamic invasion changed the concept of communities in India. They brought in different dishes into different parts of India. Spices are used in many Indian dishes. If someone eats chilly peppers so the garlic helps the body to cool down whereas in the colder weather cardamom, cinnamon, ginger etc helps to keep the body warm. 

Chicken and goat meat are popular all over India, depending on affordability. Beef is consumed only by Christians and Muslims, and pork by Christians only. Meat is not usually eaten every day of the week precisely for Hindus. Fish is popular in coastal areas. Fruits are usually consumed fresh. Desserts made from milk, sugar, rice or dhals, using ghee, nuts and spices such as cardamom, are common only on special occasions. Ghee may be served with rice as a flavour enhancer. Sesame, peanut and other vegetable oils are generally used in cooking. Pickles and pappadams (crispy wafers) are often used as accompaniments. Meals are incomplete without water. ‘Milky’ coffee and tea with sugar are also loved by everyone. Spices that are used majorly in every dish include coriander seeds, asafoetida, cumin seeds, fenugreek, ginger, pepper, chilli, garlic, turmeric, saffron and cardamom. Religion and religious festivals in all groups in India play a major role in food avoidances or inclusions.

Globalization has played a very important role in the world and has left footprints everywhere in the world. Globalization has both positive and negative impacts. Globalization could be complicated internet of economic, cultural, political and technological exchange and connection defined by Dr.Cairo. Globalization has gathered a lot of speed in the last two decades. Indian culture has also spread its impact globally. Globalization has not only impacted on food industry but all related industries in India. It has posed challenges but has also opened various opportunities for business. It has helped food industry to appreciate and absorb food standard and world safety etc. Globalization has made lifestyle and living standards easier and set the bars above. It is only seen in urban areas not in rural. Globalization has helped food industry but has also helped street food a lot to get maximum attention on it. Chefs, Foodies, bloggers, media, etc are loving the “food on road” concept, which makes it profitable for street food vendors. Food trucks, Food carts etc are very famous these days. Also, they are affordable than owning a shop and mainting it with manpower and different expensive machineries. Heterogenization argues for the flow of global culture which is more than influenced by the western but multidimensional culture. We Indians have adapted foreign culture that also includes in the food industry. Pizza with exotic vegetables weren’t known in India earlier and didn’t suit to their food palette so fast food ventures like dominos and pizza hut have put in flavours of pizza that matches Indian flavours and that makes it loved by Indians. 

Heterogenization is something that is different in every respected area. It makes the taste suit the palette and hence it proves that heterogenization is important in food industry. Culture Standardization comes between state and culture it is the process of making things inform and similar. Culture homogenization occurs naturally when the society emphasis or de-emphasis ones identity. Homogenization is something that is same all over. It is one culture that absorbs another. It is a variety of different cultures living close to each other. Cultural homogenization can be defines as traditional documented prevalence. Food example for homogenization is pasta. We have accepted pasta as it is, with its same taste and flavor and there is no changes done in the recipe.Sellers want to sell what people buy the most or they want a place where everyone wants and should be the best. Hence, all businesses will always have cultural homogenization.McDonaldilization is looked on as an idol started as “Monalization of education”. This word was developed by George Ritzer in 1993. It came into existence when McDonald became successful and was grown to 31,000 outlets in the world. In this process he defines that fast food will take over the word faster than anyone.he main idea behind it is that it has adapted factors based on characteristics of a fast food venture that includes Efficiency, Calculability, Predictability and standardization and control. Efficiency is focusing on managerial properties that are required to complete different work from production to distribution. Calculability is focused mainly on countable things rather than subjective things. Predictability and standardization are found again and again in production and distribution of products for knowing the experience of the customers. And finally comes control, wherein workers and employees act in a similar manner daily and time-to-time and also includes machinery or use of technology to avoid or reduce manpower wherever needed. Mcdonaldilization takes place when everything including institutions, different businesses, venture work like a fast-food organization or similar to it. Its not only that it is used in food industry but its theory used in toy shops, bookstores, etc. Earlier, people used to have poha, dosa, upma, paratha for breakfast but nowadays most of them want to go McDonalds and eat. So, mcdonadilization is playing a very important role in every business be it a vegetable vendors or a street food vendors. 

Street foods are basically ready-to-eat foods which are made on the streets and sold by vendors or shopkeepers and that are loved by everyone. They are mostly to be consumed there and then by the consumer. The main quality that makes them favorite of everyone is that they are tasty. They tend to be either sour, sweet, spicy or savoury. They are mostly unhealthy. These foods are relatively cheaper than that available in restaurants. There is a study performed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that shows 2.5 billion people eat street food daily. This method of selling food was started by Greeks in the ancient civilizations where vendors used to small fried fish whereas Romans sold nutritional foods as they didn’t have oven at home to bake. Similarly, the Egyptians sold fritters, rice and kebabs and the Aztecs sold atolli. Street food has achieved success in the last few years due to low start-up cost and low legal entries barrier that has give people lots of opportunities for those who have good cooking skills and knowledge about good food to grow more. Street food is a want by everyone as it gives a lively look and gets people together. Street food has always been in trend because people like to have fresh food, as they wait after they order it till its made. It can also be known as fast food. You can eat it anywhere ad they are mostly mess-free so one can eat it without any hassle. 

India is known for its distinctive street food . The best street foods are found in Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Gujarat and many more. Some types of street food are pani puri, bhel puri, dahi vada, aloo tikki, wadapav,etc. Dahi vada is a snack that was originated and is loved by the Indian sub-continent and is famous in the south of Asia especially loved by the North Indians. It is one of the most famous street food found in India found mostly on the streets of Delhi, Mumbai and South India. It is basically a fritter that is soaked in flavoured yogurt. It is topped with two chutneys sweet and spicy which makes it more delicious and mouth watering. It is a very popular snack in India mainly in the Western India. It is a very easy recipe and cane be made by anyone and everyone and at any hour of day.. It is served as a starter or a snack. Sweeter one known as “Dahi Bhalla” in Punjab, “Thairu Vada” in Malayalam, “Dahi Bora” in Bengal or “Dahi Bada” in Maharashtra. This preparation has only one method that is to be made and it is the traditional way of preparing it. The preparation time of this snack is hardly 25-20 mins. It is made by soaking lentils until its soft and then it is grind along with seasoning and is made into a fine paste. Lentils are traditionally soaked overnight so that they swell up to their maximum but due to less time or laziness in people nowdays it can be soaked in boiling water for 20-40 mins till its swollen up a bit or is softer. It is then deep fried until golden brown on medium flame. On the other hand, yogurt is whipped nicely and sugar is added to it to give it a sweet taste. The fritters are then soaked in hot water for 5-10 minutes and then is added to the yogurt mixture and is seasoned with tamarind and chilly chutney along with some garnishes. The batter can be prepared making chickpea flour too. Originally, the vada is made up of Urad dal only but due to the heaviness of the lentil Moong dal is also mixed in the ration 1:1 to make lighter and healthier and also makes it tastier and gives a better consistency. A recipe was found in the Manasollasa that was written rd is preffered mostly in Maharashtra and Gujarat. This dish is pure vegetarian and gluten-free. It is also k in 12th century. It was compiled by Someshwara II who ruled Karnataka. There arre different types of variations in dahi vada which are invented by different people. Nowadays, there is a modernization in dahi vada wherein people don’t fry the vada and instead bake them. For health conscious people this can be a very healthy dish oor snack to enjoy. The vada can also be steamed and made to cut down calories. Oats are a part of part of Dahi vada modernized to make it a healthier and low-fat treat and it can be enjoyed without any guilt. So, instead of Urad dal oats is added in the fritter along with moong dal.The fried dahi vada has approximately 140 calories per serving that is 2 pieces. This snack is also helpful and safe for diabetic patient to get away with his sweet cravings mainly made with moong dal only and dahi is rich in protein and is known for keeping sugar level under control. Dahi vada is totally vegetarian and can be vegan too. Instead of yogurt, vegan yogurt can be used and be 100% vegan. Bread Dahi vada is also been a variation to prepare a easy and quick snack if you need a quick snack to be made which gives a bite equally delicious to the original vada. It is made by cutting the brown sides of the bread and moulding it into a round ball and soaking it for something and rest the recipe remains the same. Another modernization done in dahi vada is stuffed dahi vada wherein the vadas are stuffed with raisin and cashew filling. It is spicy on the outside and sweet inside which gives a different look overall as well as taste. Street food vendors sell these fresh by frying the vadas separately and keeping aside and add the garnishes and sauces to it when there’s an order. Ready mix proprietary packets are also available and sold by different companies including its masala and dahi with batter of the vada. It can be used immediately and is easy to make and can be made by anyone. It makes work easier and effort is also used less. 

Overall, this shows that no industry especially food doesn’t remain untouched by globalization and mcdonalization and its only a better way to cope the business and doesn’t have to bare losses. Globalization has helped business a lot. In India, street food plays an important partand is eaten as a snack. It is different and loved by everyone because of variety of taste and flavour. Dahi vada is loved by everyone in the country and can be served in a healthy way too. Globalization and modernization has sent Indian delicacies to all over the world. Modernization of Indian street food is a very vast concept. It has made food interesting and simpler.

07 July 2022

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