Types of Computer Viruses and Its Prevention


Lately the identification of computer viruses has turned out to be normal spot. It gives the idea that generally these viruses have been 'kindhearted' or just somewhat dangerous. In any case, regardless of whether computer viruses can possibly cause major and delayed disturbances of processing situations is an open inquiry. In essay on viruses specially computer vituses is discussed. 

Viruses is a type of malicious programs that, when it run’s it makes copies of itself by altering other computer programs and inserting its own code. When this replication succeeds, the affected areas are then said to be 'infected' with a computer virus. Virus programmers use social engineering deceptions and exploit elaborated data of security vulnerabilities to at first infect systems and to unfold the virus. The vast majority of viruses target systems running Microsoft Windows using a range of Mechanisms to infect new hosts, and sometimes using complicated antidetection/stealth methods to evade antivirus software. Objective for making viruses will embody seeking profit (e.g., with ransomware), want to send a political message, personal amusement, to demonstrate that a vulnerability exists in computer code, for sabotage and denial of service, or simply because they wish to explore cybersecurity issues, artificial life and evolutionary algorithm.


Computer virus works in two ways. The first kind, as shortly as it lands on a new computer, begins to copy. The second kind plays dead till the trigger kick starts the malicious code. In alternative words, the infected program has to run to be dead. Therefore, it's extremely important to remain secure by installing a sturdy antivirus program. One of the best strategies by that viruses unfold is through emails opening the attachment within the email, visiting an infected web site, clicking on an practicable file, or viewing an infected advertisement can cause the virus to spread to your system. Besides that, virus also spread whereas connecting with already infected removable storage devices, like USB drives. It is very simple and easy for the virus to sneak into a computer by evading the guard frameworks. A productive break can cause weighty issues for the client, for example, tainting different assets or framework programming, altering or erasing key capacities or applications and duplicate/erase or scramble information. Accordingly, the polymorphic malware advancement lately empowers the viruses to change its code as it spreads powerfully. This has made the virus recognition and recognizable very hard.

Common Types of Viruses

A computer virus is one kind of malware that embeds its virus code to increase itself by modifying the projects and applications. The computer gets contaminated through the replication of pernicious code. Computer virus come in various structures to taint the framework in various ways. Probably the most well-known virus are:

Boot Sector

This kind of virus taints the ace boot record and it is testing and a mind boggling assignment to evacuate this virus and regularly requires the framework to be arranged. For the most part it spreads through removable media.

Direct Action Virus

This is likewise called non occupant virus, it gets introduced or remains covered up in the computer memory. It remains appended to the particular kind of documents that it contaminate. It doesn't influence the client experience and framework's presentation.

Resident Virus

Unlike direct activity viruses, occupant viruses get introduced on the computer. It is hard to distinguish the infection and it is even hard to evacuate an inhabitant infection.

Multipartite Virus

This sort of infection spreads through various ways. It contaminates both the boot area and executable documents in the meantime.

Polymorphic Virus

These sort of viruses are hard to relate to a customary enemy of infection program. This is on the grounds that the polymorphic viruses adjusts its mark design at whatever point it reproduces.

Overwrite Virus

This kind of infection erases every one of the records that it contaminates. The main conceivable system to evacuate is to erase the tainted documents and the end: client needs to lose every one of the substance in it. Recognizing the overwrite infection is troublesome as it spreads through messages.

Spacefiller Virus

This is likewise called 'Depression Viruses'. This is called so as they top off the unfilled spaces between the codes and thus does not make any harm the document.

File Infectors

Barely any document infector viruses come connected with program records, for example, .com or .exe documents. Some document infector viruses contaminate any program for which execution is mentioned, including .sys, .ovl, .prg, and .mnu records. Subsequently, when the specific program is stacked, the infection is likewise stacked. Other than these, the other document infector viruses come as a totally included program or content sent in email connections.

Browser Hijacker

This kind of virus infects your web browser in which it will bring you to different websites. Normally, if you key in a domain name in the internet address bar, the browser hijacker will open many fake websites that may damage your computer. On the other hand, most trusted browsers have built-in features to block them onward.

Web Scripting Virus

This virus exists in certain links, ads, image placement, videos, and design of a website. These may convey malicious codes in which when you click, the viruses it will be automatically downloaded or will direct you to malicious websites.

Macro Virus

Macro viruses aim’s applications and software that contain macros. These viruses can carry out series of operations affecting the performance of the program or software. Some examples of macro viruses are O97M/Y2K, Bablas, Melissa.A, and Relax.

Directory Virus

Directory virus’s alteration file paths. When you run programs and software that are infected with directory viruses, the virus program also runs in the background. Further, it may be difficult for you to locate the original app or software once infected with directory viruses.

Encrypted Virus

This type of virus uses encrypted malicious codes which make antivirus software hard to detect them. They can only be detected when they decrypt themselves during replication. Although they don’t delete files or folders, they can badly affect PC performance.

Companion Virus

This is a type of virus that doesn’t survive without accompanying an existing file or folder. In order to carry out damages, the file or folder being accompanied by companion viruses should be opened or run. Some examples of companion viruses include Terrax.1069, Stator, and Asimov.1539.

Network Virus

Basically, this type of virus spreads out through Local Network Area (LAN) and through the internet. These viruses replicate through shared resources, including drives and folders. When network viruses enter a computer, they look for their potential prey. Dangerous network viruses include Nimda and SQLSlammer.

Nonresident Virus

Nonresident viruses replicate through modules. When the module is executed, it will select one or more files to infect.

Stealth Virus

Stealth viruses trick antivirus software by appearing like they are real files or programs and by intercepting its requests to the OS. Some antivirus software cannot detect them. Sometimes, it temporarily removes itself from the system without deletion.

Sparse Infector

Sparse infectors use different techniques to minimize its detection. They are viruses that infect “occasionally”. For example, they may only want to infect a program every tenth execution. Because they are occasional infectors, antivirus software has a hard time detecting them.

FAT Virus

Basically, this type of virus ruins file allocation system where the information about files, including the location, exist.

How Viruses Can Enter in a Computer

The computer virus is also usually but speciously used to refer to other types of malware, adware, and spyware programs that don’t have this generative ability. Malware includes worms, Trojans, most rootkits, spyware, dishonest adware, crime ware, and other unwanted software, including true viruses. Viruses are occasionally confused with computer worms and Trojan horses, which are technically different. A worm will exploit security vulnerabilities to spread itself to other computers through networks, while a Trojan is a program that appears harmless but hides malicious functions.

Worms and Trojans, like viruses, may harm a computer system’s data or performance. A true virus will solely unfold from one computer to another (in some sort of executable code) once its host is taken to the target computer; as an example as a result of a User sent it over network or the internet, or carried it on a removable medium such as atopy disk, CD, DVD, or USB drive. Transmission of viruses can increase by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer. Computer viruses were labelled as viruses owing to the very fact that they're kind of like biological viruses within the facet of multiplying themselves. Similarly they find a number so infect and multiply themselves. However, in both cases there must be a cause in order for the problem to begin.

Some viruses and alternative malware have symptoms noticeable to the computer user, however several are surreptitious and go neglected. There are various sorts of computer viruses and each sort has their very own extraordinary highlights that separate themselves from each other. Among the various kinds of viruses the most well-known ones are computer based viruses and web based viruses. There are numerous inconspicuous and clear qualifications that set the various sorts of computer viruses separated from each other. A portion of the more ordinary viruses are portrayed beneath. 'Occupant viruses' exist in a computer's unpredictable memory (RAM).From there it can survive and intrude on the majority of the activities executed by the framework like undermining files and projects that are opened, shut, replicated, renamed, and so on. Instances of this sort of infection incorporate Randex, CMJ, Meve, and MrKlunky. Multipartite viruses are appropriated through tainted media and for the most part cover up in the memory. Bit by bit, the infection moves to the boot part of the hard drive and contaminates executable files on the hard drive and later over the computer framework. Never the neglect to require action on a computer virus residing in your system. There are a unit possibilities that you just might find yourself losing necessary files, programs, and folders. In some cases, the virus damages the system hardware too. Thereby, it becomes necessary to possess an efficient anti-virus software system put in on your computer to steer clear of all such threats.

Internet and Viruses

The danger found on the internet will come back from recent viruses that are exploiting new ways that to be ready to transmit. There are two ways that they can do this:

Innocent Virus Distribution

Only and simple click will attach a program to an email and it's terribly easy to detach and run the program. The sharing of software over the net is really easy and easy. Any program found on the web may be infected. Parasitic file viruses work well during this setting even though users are cautious about getting programs from places they barely trust. Viruses that are widespread on the net are the macro viruses. They’re attached to data, not code, creating them harder to avoid.

Malicious Virus Distribution

Viruses are often spread by malicious people that pass on infected programs. The internet is the excellent place for a virus creators and others to convey a new virus a begin in life. They infect attractive-looking file that then gets placed in a very public downloaded space.

This virus will then spread way briefly laps of your time. Malicious distributed viruses are additional probably to be fresh far-famed. You need to not download any programs unless you're certain about it and fully trust the source.

The programs that are being written in Java will have one or two forms: the application and also the applications. Java application are applications that are travel by another application like internet browsers. It needs an unflawed, bug-free Java atmosphere that doesn't exist nonetheless. We’ve already found faults and stuck them, and additional in all probability lurk undetected. The failings that are found are serious, permitting the application to flee completely and do everything a normal program might. Java applications will do the things that you simply would expect applications to try and do. An increasing range of hoaxes and scares stories concerning email viruses in recent years are found. With the actual email technology as several hoaxes claim, it's not possible to become infected with a virus by merely reading an email. A file attached to an email may carry an outbreak, however this might solely be spread by detaching the file and execution it or gap it with an application that might execute the infective agent macros. But however, some new email computer code, like MS Outlook, provides a mechanism for automatically execution macros whenever an email is read, thus there's the likelihood of email viruses within the future. It is important for any person to be aware of these warning signs. Signs of virus infection:

  • Slower system performance;
  • Pop-ups bombarding the screen;
  • Programs running on their own;
  • Files multiplying/duplicating on their own;
  • New files or programs within the laptop;
  • Files, folders or programs obtaining deleted or corrupted;
  • The sound of a tough drive.


If you stumble upon any of those preceding signs then there are possibilities that your computer is infected by a virus or malware. To not delay, instantly stop all the commands and download an antivirus software. If you’re unsure what to do, get the help of a certified computer personnel. If you're assured enough, begin investigation on your own by following the below mentioned in small stages procedures.

Preventive Measures

Precautions for data wellbeing what's more, stay away from virus contamination Aversion is the best solution for staying away from virus contaminations and dangers. A virus can bargain individual data and even crush a computer totally. It turns into a significant danger and security chance for tremendous databases put away and utilized libraries on their servers. There are many minimal effort measures, which may help in ensuring and remaining one stage in front of the programmers. “Keep ordinary reinforcement of information' is profoundly prescribed to abstain from losing it. Abstain from utilizing obscure USB drives. At the point when information is

Duplicated from a computer that is tainted with a virus and exchanged to the next computer, it may cause virus contamination in that computer as well. In this manner, it is dependably fitting that the USB drives ought to be examined for virus before duplicating their information to a computer framework. Introduce a solid antivirus program. Regardless of whether the computer isn't snared to the web, a solid antivirus program is minimal effort and bodes well. Some Antivirus programs are free and work nearly just as industry goliaths for example, Norton and McAfee. Introduce hostile to spyware and anti-malware programs. A considerable lot of the top hostile to spyware programs are totally free. Spy bot Search and Destroy and C Cleaner are only two free projects that can help counteract computer virus. As supportive as these projects seem to be, one must update them and run them on a customary premise to do any great.


To conclude computer viruses essay, computer virus that's malicious Software Programs are a few things that's affecting the internet and our computer these days. It’s become common to own an endemic found through an email or any sites. There are a unit many varieties of virus that exists and that we have many ways with in which our computer is full of a virus. Individuals accessing totally different sites everyday should take care of the contents of the page being open. Viruses will do high damage to your computer or to yourself.

08 December 2022
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