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Analysis Of Israeli-Palestinian Territorial Dispute In 2018

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The Israeli-Palestinian territorial dispute is an ongoing conflict happening in the Middle East-North Africa region. The dispute involves many states, though there are currently two states playing prominent roles in the dispute: Israel and Palestine. Deemed as one of the most controversial disputes in the history of mankind, the dispute between the two states concerns territorial claims and control over the Holy Land. There had been several wars happening in the dispute; the first war was in 1948, beginning the State of Israel’s existence while destroying Palestinian ethnic and forcing Palestinians to flee from their homeland. The next war revolving around the territorial dispute was the Six-Day War (1967), when Israel claimed the Gaza Strip, West Bank, East Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from the Arab states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. After the Yom Kippur War (1973), the Camp David Accords was signed between Egypt and Israel in 1979, therefore ending the war between the two-state. The Accords also became the foundation for Palestine’s self-government in Gaza and West Bank. In 1982, Israel withdrew its forces from the Sinai Peninsula, effectively returning the peninsula to Egypt as a part of the Accords.

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Although the Six-Day War and Yom Kippur War involved Israel and the Arab states of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, two of the Israel-conquered territories won in the two wars, the West Bank and Gaza Strip, were home to a large number of Palestinians, approximately over one million by the time the territories fell into Israel’s authority in the Six-Day War. Many Palestinians have been fleeing from the Israeli government since the war in 1948, most hoping to be able to return to their homeland once the war ceased to exist. Those who remained behind lived under Israeli rule and became second-class citizens; above all, however, the Palestinian society was destroyed: properties, politics, military, and culture.

Constructivist Analysis over Israel’s Identity

Constructivist paradigm emphasizes the construction of a state’s identity as the cause of the state’s action. The theory was created by Alexander Wendt, who criticized neo-realists for perceiving a state’s nature in the international anarchy as fixed or immutable, “taking for granted” for what it is. It is possible for a state’s national interest to change, depending on both domestic and international factors, including valuable resources.

Israel is, so far, the only Jewish state in the world. Its national ideology is Zionism, a belief that Judaism should serve both as a nationality and as a religion, and that Jewish people have the right to build their state in their ancestor’s land. This belief was based from the Bible, precisely from the kingdoms of David and Solomon, and created around the 19th century by Theodor Herzl, a secular Austrian-Jewish journalist. He laid foundation of the modern Zionism after witnessing anti-Semitism movement—a hostile belief and attitude against Jews—in Europe. The belief then was divided into two: left Zionism and right Zionism. Left Zionism, ruling the state almost fifty years ago, seeks peace with Arab states by giving them Israeli land, ran a secular government, and government’s active participation in economy. This is the polar opposite of right Zionist, known as neo-Zionism and currently running Israeli government, who is against giving the Arab states land, prefers more liberal economy, and involves religion in political matters.

The neo-Zionists’ stance on the matter stemmed from their wish to bring Jewish state, heritage, and culture into modernity and international stage. They also do not want to share lands with Palestinians as a state, preferring to let them settle in Palestinian-Israeli cities in a new Palestinian state instead of letting them have their own independent state. The concept of Palestinian-Israeli cities still adhere to the original Zionism ideology: that Jewish people have the right to build a state on their ancestors’ land.

Offensive Realism’s Analysis over Israel’s Actions Against Palestine in 2018

Offensive realism is a paradigm in international relations’ theories that emphasizes on a state’s desire to enhance their own power while reducing other states’. The theory was formulated by John J. Mearsheimer, who was influenced by Kenneth Waltz’s neo-realism. Mearsheimer stated that states will always try to maximize their military power to preserve their national interest, even warring at some time, though he did not justify war.

10 October 2020

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