Chloramphenicol And Its’ Significant In Fish And Shrimp Farming
Having a chemical composition of C11H12Cl2N2o5, chloramphenicol is an aromatic compound. This aromatic compound is mainly used for treatment of bacterial infection. In 1947 chloramphenicol was discovered, and in 1949 chemical structure was confirmed. This is one of the world health organizations’ listed essential medicine that was mainly used for typhoid. But now this drug is using successfully on many microbs. This medicine has a great impact on fish and shrimp culture. In USA chloramphenicol is using since 1994 in aquaculture. Chemical Property: Chloramphenicol is composed of 11 carbon molecule, 12 hydrogen, 2 chlorine, 2 nitrogen and 5 oxygen molecule. Molecular weight is 323. 132 gm. If we emphasize on molecular structure, there is one diazonium group, two hydroxide group, two chloride group and one benzene cycle.
Chloramphenicol in Fish Farm: Now a days, chloramphenicol is banned for the production of food. Because of its serious side effect. Fatal aplastic anemia can be caused by over dose of Chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol work as a protein synthesis inhibitor. Peptidyl transferase activity of bacterial ribosomes is inhabited by Chloramphenicol. It is a prophylactic agent against in carp dropsy. Trout ulcer disease (caused by Haemophilus piscium) and furunculosis (caused by Aeromonas salmonicida) is also treated by chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol in Shrimp Farm: In Bangladesh many shrimp hatchery use chloramphenicol for bacterial attack. 31 hatcheries of Bangladesh use this medicine for luminiscent disease which is caused by Vibrio harvey and Vibrio splendious. To control all type of bacteria 40% hatchery use Chloramphenicol. 30 hatchery used as broad spectrum antibiotic. To prevent possible bacterial infection after eyestalk ablation it been used. 4ppm Chloramphenicol used for the treatment of spawning tank and hatching tank. Mechanism: Inhabit protein synthesis. By inhibiting the peptidyl transferase activity of the bacterial ribosome, it prevent protein chain elongation.
Inhabit peptide bond formation by binds to A2451 and A2452 residues in in the 23S rRNA of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Ribosome’s are interacted by both chloramphenicol and macrolide class of antibiotics.
Effect of Chloramphenicol: Chloramphenicol can accumulate in fish and shrimp flesh and transported to human body by consuming chloramphenicol contaminated product. 306 targeted sample been reported to be non-consumable for chloramphenicol contamination during the time period 2002-2012. Chloramphenicol can also comes to crops like corn and rice where they carried by soil organisms. Dhloramphenical can easily transported to human. It produce hematotoxicity. Aplastic anaemia caused by chloramphenicol. It has a inhibitory effect on mitochondria. This is genotoxic. Its mean that it can cause genetic damage and lead to cancer. Bone marrow suppression is considered as most dangerous side effect of it. Common side effect is diarrhea. Many countries like china, USA banded chloramphenicol. FAO says that almost every countries has banded this harmful substance.
Conclusion: Despite of being a very toxic and harmful chemical, in our country farmers and hatchery owner are using this very frequently. This not only decreasing our quality of product, but also risking civilian life. As a student of Faculty of Fisheries, BSMRAU its our duty to inform farmers about harmful side effect of chloramphenicol. Govt. also take proper step to prevent use of this chemical and conserving quality fisheries product and human health.