Impact Of Social Movements On Citizenship
The article basically looks at the impact of social movements on Citizenship. T. H Marshalls model for Citizenship is taken as a framework with which to gauge on society.
1 T. H. Marshall: Citizenship, Social Class, and the Nation-State
The good starting point for an analysis on the citizenship is the historical and the sociological reflections of Thomas Humphrey Marshall. Actually it looks at citizenship on the basis of civil, political and the social rights. It also creates the links between citizenship and the capitalism
Marshall analyzes citizenship in three categories of rights:
Civil rights imply the protection of individual freedom, including "personal freedom, freedom of expression, faith, property rights and establishing legal contracts; the right to justice "(Marshall, 1992: 8) Related to modern institutions from civil and criminal courts, Marshall sees civil rights as developed in the eighteenth century.
Political rights imply the right to "Participate in the implementation of political power as a member with political authorities or as voters from these members a body "(1992: 8) it’s been there for some people, according to Marshall, they are became citizenship rights only in the 20th century with an extension universal suffrage for all adults. This sets the principle that they are it depends on personal status rather than on economic means. In terms of institutions, involving the development of parliaments and councils from the local government formed in the nineteenth century.
Marshall saw developments in the 20th century in their modern form, with welfare state institutions including the national compulsory education system and people from health and social services. Marshall's definition of social rights is more abstract than the definition of civil and political rights, which reflects his broad vision:
Limits of the Marshall’s account of citizenship
The Marshals model had a few problems in it. Actually it ignored politics. It saw the development of the citizenship as the same in all the countries. He assumed citizenship rights automatically equated to the equality. In generalizing the citizen as of universal nature in all the countries he ends up ignoring the culture.
The Citizenship, Wealth, and Poverty
In his model the Marshall saw social rights as the mechanism to counteract the ill effects of the capitalism in the human society.
More importantly, because Marshall can't wait to consolidate citizenship in 1948, all states were involved and restructured in different degrees, in the process of neoliberal globalization. This not so much that the state loses control of economic processes with the end of the management of Keynesian capitalism, although this often happens the way in which globalization is represented in the rhetoric of politicians. Neo - liberalism is an economic project, but has been facilitated by states (Scott, 1997b). Although the ideal of neoliberalism is a free market, the reality is that the government is market-controlled (Somers, 2008: 93-5). In relation for social citizenship, neo-liberalization countries have been involved in its border, to paraphrase Margaret Thatcher, especially in relation to the cost of social rights. Under Marshall, they are involved in expanding the market and narrowing the scope of public life where citizens must enjoy equality. In fact, this happened new complex agreement between the state and the market, no reduction in state intervention at all (Crouch, 2001).
In the UK, there are a series of reforms aimed at reducing welfare state costs that have a direct impact on citizen access social rights. The most important of them is effectively re-creating citizens as a consumer. In some cases, there are types when, in England, parents are encouraged to choose a local public school for their children (when before, they would be expected closest to your home) or - if you can allow it - to send for private schools are paid the same way, even if health care remains in England, those who can afford it are recommended to do it Additional in national health services with medical assistance insurance. State pensions are so low that they have to be "covered" by paying in private schemes and so on. This does not only mean citizens receiving different treatment based on their income, it also reduces commitment to "universal" citizenship rights and produce stigma those who only have access to inferior services. Likewise, in the United States, where social rights are far more developed than elsewhere in Europe, cuts in public spending have caused insurance and access to medical care for the poorest. Federal Court to help people in emergencies take responsibility poor people in New Orleans were left to face destruction caused by Hurricane Katrina, which has made life a reality below a poverty line that is surprisingly visible to US and world citizens (Somers, 2008).
Citizenship, Sex, and the Sexuality
The Women’s movement and LBGTQ movements challenged society as in the rebelled against the predefined roles that the society had given women and men.
Women's movement and gay and lesbian movements among the most important social movements that challenge traditional citizenship model and try to develop a more inclusive model. Although, as a social movement, they have developed separately, they improve analytically related. Citizenship and women's rights in Indonesia. The relationship with homosexuality challenges the traditional role of gender and shows how citizenship exists, far from giving people rights thus; it depends on the position that people occupy main family.
The women’s movement
The women’s movement was dominated by Feminism. A social move towards the women being empowered and getting more rights. Actually one of the reasons for this was due to the large number of women who had entered the work force.
Contemporary feminists see women as incarnation’s liberal democracy in a paradoxical and unfair way. The result, they are continue to be faced with what is known as "identity - difference" dilemma. The women's movement must focus on women's rights treated in the same way as men or in certain gender rights, differences in men to be evaluated and considered as means to achieve true gender equality?
Therefore, there are three contradictory ways in which women are excluded from all citizenship rights. First, women are discriminated against fight when they must have the same rights as men. Second, inside on the other hand, they are treated in the same way as men when only differentiating care will allow true equality. In this case, physical and historical differences are neglected which prevents women from truly participate in institutions and practices developed to serve men, even though they have formal rights to do so. Third, however, some citizenship rights, especially social rights, are given differently to women and men, and in this case, women are treated as inferior citizens. How to Feminists see, paradox and inconsistency in women's citizenship related to the way they develop secondary for men. Historically, to date, residents are male household heads and women's citizenship developed inside for rights developed on this basis.
The gay and lesbian movement and queer politics.
The coming out of the gays and the lesbians meant that they now demanded their equal rights. Although homosexuality always existed in the human society this time they wanted recognition and the equal rights. They were also pushing towards the right of same sex marriage which was new in the society.
The struggle for gay citizenship rights began in the 1960s, in addition other social movements at the time. The gay liberation movement is founded in the United States in 1969, after the Stonewall uprising, where the audience of the gay bar in New York reacted after years of being attacked by the police. A similar movement was formed a little later Western European countries. Propose anti-capitalist revolutionaries, anti-family and anti-medical analysis of gay oppression, the short-lived and immediately gave way to more moderate campaign organizations for renovation. Campaign for extension of citizenship rights enjoyed by the majority to be extended to sexual minorities began to become well supported (Evans, 1993: 114-17; Weeks, 1993: 198). Lesbians often involved in the initial push of the gay liberation movement, less involved in campaigns for legal rights and against police harassment which is the main theme of the gay movement. Historically, lesbians suffered more than invisibility from legal repression, ever since lesbianism has never been illegal, even though it has been stigmatized. They
Nevertheless, participating in important cultural policies from which makes gay and lesbian lifestyles look and deserve. There is no doubt about its success in this regard. Every city now has a gay bar,
Many have a gay environment and the impact of the movement media, popular culture and proven modes everywhere. Lipstick lesbianism, in particular, has been seen as a recent contribution fashion for gay pictures. However, with less income than men, women cannot use "consumer power" at the same level as men and lesbians to be less visible in commercial spaces too.
The Citizenship, Racialization, and Ethnicity
The citizenship models are usually seen from the perspective of a white male dominated model creating a sort of bias in the sociological study. Actually this section reflects on the history of citizenship with respect to race and the ethnicity, and the impacts it has had on assimilation and the rights of an individual citizen.
The Immigration, assimilation, and “new racism”
People would at times move to a new Country for the better socio economic conditions. These immigrants would then have to assimilate to their new society. But not always were they welcome.
New World countries are often described as "immigration states" because most citizens are born elsewhere or descendant’s people who come to the country are relatively new. "Countries immigration "usually gives citizenship to all babies born in the region countries, such as the United States, and Indonesian children born abroad, and they also have procedures that are relatively easy to naturalize.
All Western European countries now contain a large minority in other places, but different in their citizenship duties according to the model of relations between the state and the state that they embody. Colonialism has become an important factor in labor migration people come from former colonies to too advanced metropolises Center In the case of England, those who arrived before 1962 from the former - the colony has full citizenship rights allocated to all born British territory. Since then, however, British citizenship has approached for sanguinis juice and is now limited to those who have parents or grandparents born in the country - especially white. Immigrants who come later, The 1970s had a closer status with migrant workers in other European countries. Countries: short-term contracts as workers and without long-term settlement. Citizenship in France, which has been seen as an example
Citizenship nationalism in Europe, although it is still based on juice soli, too become relatively more closed. Until now, the second generation of migrants all is given French citizenship at birth and naturalization actively encouraged as a policy to help assimilate and improve French population. However, in recent years, the right to citizenship has been automatic questionable in relation to the second generation Algeria, apparently because of the difficulty of assimilating Muslims in a secular society (Oommen, 1997: 165). Conversely, Germany taken as an example of the nation and ethnic citizenship has been traditionally based on sanguinis juice: traditionally, it is blood rather than the law that made the German people.
The Multiculturalism, group - differentiated rights, and “new assimilationism”
Large amounts of the immigration led to multiculturalism. Actually the multiculturalism had begun to be seen as an ideal in many countries. This section looked at the positive effects that adoption of multiculturalism has had on various countries.
To some extent, separate rights are given to minority in several countries. In England, for example, Jews and Muslims exempt from law which makes it impossible to do so animals according to their traditional methods, and Sikhs can use their turbans instead of collision helmets required by law. Besides, moreover, in recent years, Muslims, Seventh-day Adventists, and Hindus winning rights, has been appreciated by Christians and Jews, to the government funding for schools where the curriculum will be organized these religions. This is very controversial because the importance is given to education in the formation of personal and social identities. In fact, multiculturalism in regular education is probably the most development of multicultural policies around the world. This involves recognition of history, literature, and cultural religion minority, and often a celebration of different days of the festival. Nevertheless not, in fact, such legal rights, multicultural education is seen as offering children minority groups the same and original access to education opportunities, and encourage tolerance, if you don't understand, from the population. In a sense, then, and paradoxically, religious schools are seen as choosing multiculturalism because they have it more control over curriculum and student intake regular school. More controversial, the possibility of institutionalizing Shari 'law is proposed and debated in Canada, which is has allowed Jewish and Catholic organizations to make arbitration court to regulate family disputes. The problem was resolved in this case when the government decided to match the community, not allow it Muslim court, but closes Jews and Catholics.