Literature Review: Opioid Crisis

Opioid Crisis has been a major problem for many families in the country. This crisis has spread through every corner of the country, as result the death toll from overdose increase day in and day out and addressing the crisis has become very urgent. According to NIH, the opioid is a class of drugs that including illegal heroin, synthetic opioids such as oxycontin, hydrocodone, Vicodin, codeine, morphine, and many others. In recent years, a growing number of people addicted to drugs normally started from legal prescriptions and then later switched to legal drugs.

In some case, people get addicted to drugs through peer group influence. Our country is facing an opioid overdose epidemic and impact both the public and private sectors. The opiate medications are intended to treat patients with terminal illness and severe pain, but at the cause of the treatment, some patients become addicted and dependent on this medication both physical and psychological. Also, opioid users and addicts become addicted to prescription drugs that their doctors gave them for things like sports injuries and post -surgery and serve a purpose when it used responsibility. The abuse and misuse of opioid medications lead to negative come.

The opioid abuse has been a major health concern in every county or state through the United States of American, and many people young or old are dying from overdoses from this growing crisis. Addicts agree that there are too many consequences in these drugs but finding it difficult to quit these horrible drugs. The opioid overdose has a very impact on the individual, family, and the community. In recent years many people are dying from heroin and fentanyl than any other drugsLiterature ReviewThe author Bendix discussed in the article that the opioid overdose death and how to stop this crisis. "Amid rising deaths due to prescription painkillers, doctors are finding alternative ways to help the patient manage chronic pain" (Bendix, 2016, p. 28). The primary care physician is playing serious attention on how to prescribe medication opioid for their patients. The primary care physician taking an active role in helping solve this crisis in our communities. "How do they minimize the number of opioids they dispense and reduce the number of people dependent on them while still helping to ease chronic pain millions of Americans experience" (Bendix, 2016, p. 28). There are many ways the physician can do to stop prescribed unnecessary painkillers. Doctors need another coping mechanism that helps relief patients like yoga exercises, listening to music, watching TV and many others that will distract the patient mind from the pain. Bendix stated user agreement where the patients signed a contract between them and their primary care physicians, and when they violate they face the consequence. When the patient repeats the violation will lead the physician to dismiss the patient from the practice.

The healthcare provider has huge responsibilities to fight together with the citizen, lawmakers, and other law enforcement offices against the opioid crisis in our community in the country. As our country facing the opioid crisis, the rate has been increasing. In 2015, there were more than 33,000 Americans who died from overdosing on prescription opioids, heroin, and illegally manufacture fentanyl (National Institute of Health [NIH], 2018). Statistics show that about 80% of people who heroin, first abused opioids that were prescribed to them (NIH, 2018). In the research study every day more 115 people in the United States die after overdosing opioids. The opioid crisis has taken and continues to take precious life from us a nation. Now the opioid crisis is a public health crisis, which needs every agency public or private to come together solve this problem. ‘'The increase in injection drug use has also contributed to the spread of infectious disease including HIV and hepatitis C" (NIH, 2018). The opioid crisis is a national wide concern, but few rural areas are hit harder than urban areas, and this has impacted many people on daily basis, either directly, through afflicted family members or through the effects it has on healthcare and the economy. This matter has already been ignored far too long. The cost of the drug overdose epidemic has to take the life across the board in the country in every community especially the rural communities. This crisis has the cost the taxpayers too much money. In the Cohen's article published in InsideHealtPolicy. com in 2017, White House stated that the opioid crisis has cost $504 billion in 2015. The actual cost of this crisis sometime underreported or not report at all. The White House declared the opioid crisis a National Public Health Emergency and the President's Commission on Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and Opioid Crisis recommend the White Hose push 56 policy reforms to stem the crisis (Cohen, 2017 p. 1). While the opioid epidemic has already been declared a public health emergency that declaration falls short of the true nature of the opioid epidemic, but it also the right direction to fight against the social problems. The federal government will request additional money from Congress to treat the drug addicts and save a life. Many people have been some victims of the opioid crisis. The other victims of the opioid epidemic. The study was about the patient misused of opioid, how he started using cocaine before the diagnosis of been a cancer patient. The patient told his story and educate people to stay away from these drugs. " The solution will require careful thought, consideration, and most, the development of meaningful interventions to improve both pain management and substance-misuse prevention" (Glod, 2017, p. 4). The drug addicts’ loss control of their life and they continue to use the drugs in some cases until death.

The character in the Glod article was telling his story lost everything because of drugs. Lucas Philippe discussed the root causes of the opioid crisis and the intervention to stop this fast-growing problem in our society. The drugs have taken much life here in the United States. Lucas says that "the evidence-based interventions in the opioid overdose crisis informed by research on substitution effect, proposing for cannabis for therapeutic purposes to play in reducing opioid use and interrupting cycle towards opioids use disorder"(Lucas, 207,p. 1). Their many forms of drugs doctors can use to substitute for the patient to use that are safe less addictive and dependence. Medication such as methadone and suboxone are using to treat drug addicts. The last author in this review is Murthy, who is a medical doctor stated its time to end the opioid epidemic. He addressed in the article the need for the engagement and dialogue in solving the crisis. The author calls for an action from the political leaders, doctors, nurse and the clinician to come together as a team and help address this crisis. Murthy, stated, "our ability to address the opioid epidemic will also depend on our willingness as a society to be clear-eyed about what is working and where gab still exists"(Murthy, p. 4).

Opioid crisis cannot be solved by one entity, it needs collaboration effort from everyone to stop or minimize the problem and it consequence attached to it,The result of being drug addicts, they started to withdraw when the drugs wear off in the body system symptoms such as vomiting, loss of appetite, confusion, agitation depression, hallucination, and in some cases seizures. All these symptoms get severe and life-threatening of the individual. The majority of drug addicts are unemployed because the drugs interfering with the ability to maintain a job, and let the workforce and the economic development of the country. The drugs are destroying the families and people are dying leaving their families apart. In conclusion, all the authors discussed the how to prevent and the cure those who are addicted to opioids, in the review I found out some good citizen of the country how they want to fight against the opioid crisis. The primary physician how enhancing and monitoring the how opioids are prescribed and dispense this dangerous drug for the patients. Murthy calls for an action for his fellow clinicians to get involved to prevent and treat drug addict and save the life. The author Cohen stated the money this crisis has cost the country which was very huge, and the United States government effort to help to address this escalating issues. Everybody knows that this opioid crisis is getting out of hand, the United States Congress needs to pass a law that will allow more clinical nurse specialist also to prescribed buprenorphine which is an overdose-reversing medication.

The declaring opioid epidemic a national emergency will help get enough funding for treatment, and ensuring wider access to Narcan to rescue people who are the victim of these drugs. Overall, all the authors studied how opioid overdose impacting the people and affecting life, and the way this can be combated in our communities across the country. I support declaring the opioid epidemic a national emergency, the citizens of this great country well-being and future depend on it. It has been draining our coffers as a nation, it time to come together and solve this problem once and all.

18 May 2020
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