The Importance Of Forensic Science In Criminal Justice System
The Forensics department is one of the most important aspects of our criminal justice system. This sub-group is responsible for collecting and processing important DNA evidence that could determine the legal outcome of many criminal offences. Forensic researchers break down proof retrieved from cops and investigators, and afterward they create point by point reports of their discoveries. Criminological science covers an assortment of insightful zones. It can point a criminal examination the correct way or give evidence of a speculates blame or honesty. The use of expert witnesses in court have proved to be extremely beneficial to the courts system. The investigative process includes the general knowledge, gathering the evidence and lastly using that evidence in testimonies.
Every criminal investigator has a set list of rules that must be followed in order to ensure a smooth investigation. Evidence is typically gathered during the “Search and Seizure” portion of the investigative process. However, any evidence that is collected under an unlawful search cannot be used in court. The “Fruit of the poisonous tree” doctrine protects defendants from evidence being used against them that was unlawfully collected. Investigators must be sure to abide by the law every step of the investigation or else key proof and evidence will not be allowed in court. Essential information on the guidelines overseeing affirmation and dismissal of proof is crucial to an examination. This information is expected to direct request and to plan cases that will present to the court enough allowable and dependable data whereupon to base a legitimate verdict. According to CT2Learn, “To be admissible, evidence must be relevant. Relevancy requires that the particular item of evidence have some tendency to prove or disprove a fact to be decided at the trial” (p. g 34). Forensic science assumes an essential job in the criminal equity framework by giving experimentally based data through the examination of physical proof. During an examination, proof is gathered at a crime scene or from an individual, broke down in a crime lab and afterward the outcome is exhibited in court. The outcome of the trial solely depends on how evidence is presented to the judge and jury. Expert witnesses, lawyers and prosecutors must explain evidence as clear and concise as possible for the jury and judge to give an accurate judgement.
Gathering evidence takes place at the crime scene begins with victim and witness statements. These verbal statements can be used in courts; however, solid scientific evidence is preferred. Testimonies help solidify the case, but they cannot be solely depended on to give a final judgement. The investigative process begins right away when law enforcement jumps into action. Witness statements and victim statements can be taken. Questions asked even without an arrest can be used in the investigation. However, if an arrest is made, Miranda warnings must be disclosed to make sure the defendant knows their rights and to make sure they know that everything they say can be used against them in trial. “The circumstances that investigators encounter at the scene will largely dictate the approach used to process the scene. A homicide will likely require different treatment and processing than a burglary” (NFSTC n. p). At the start of the investigation, photographs are taken of the evidence found and of the overall layout of the crime scene. In numerous occurrences, a case will be examined by a criminologist who is liable for talking people of intrigue and unfortunate casualties, seeking after leads and sorting out the data that is created from the materials gathered at the scene. The analyst works pair with a group of crime scene staff who search the scene and gather the proof. The crime scene examination group may comprise of crime photographers and proof assortment work force gaining practical experience in social occasion explicit proof, for example, DNA, weapons, and other important evidence. This way after cleanup, photos can be reviewed to determine point of entry, placement of evidence, and other important factors. To verify that all proof is represented, an inventory is kept. The information recorded into the log must match the photograph of the specific evidence taken at the scene and the depiction remembered for the crime report. For example, if a weapon is gathered, the sequential number of the gun in the inventory must match the sequential number appeared in the photograph that was taken at the scene.
Expert witness can be used in court to present key information because of their solid background. Expert forensic witnesses can use their education and years of experience to give testimonies that solidify the evidence presented. Specialists help legal counselors in creating systems concerning how proof ought to be exhibited in court. Obviously, due as far as anyone is concerned on the pertinent topic, the court will put a more noteworthy incentive on a specialist’s opinion. Examiners accept that juries are very intrigued by logical proof that they ‘love to play detective’ and that criminological proof energizes ‘things up. ‘ More critically, juries consider logical proof reliable, not expose to human feeling and mutilation. According to The US Department of Justice, “If, however, the forensic testimony involves an interpretation of forensic evidence, rather than simply an identification of a substance, the cross- examination may successfully introduce alternative explanations. Rather than attack the evidence or the expert head-on, the defense will try to ‘explain away’ the evidence” (pg. 2). During the trial, evidence must be presented in a way for the jury to fully understand the weight of its importance and that way they can give an accurate judgement toward the end of the trial. Be that as it may, while lawyers should carefully amass each aspect of a court case; the estimation of Expert Witnesses in such cases cannot be downplayed. Vincent Di Mair, a world-renowned Forensic Pathologist, for example, has given testimonies on many well-known cases. His expertise ranges specifically to gunshot wounds. In 2013, Mair testified in the defense of a man named George Zimmerman. George Zimmerman had been accused of Second-degree manslaughter and murder. During this case, Mair gave expert testimony to prove the gunshot wounds the victim received correlated with the defendant statement and thus proved the justification of self-defense that had been used in court. According to Todd Hatcher, Maio’s testimony was the most crucial part of the case and was a key point in dismissing both charges from George Zimmerman. Another well-known Forensic scientist named Henry Lee, is very well known for his testimony on the OJ Simpson case. Lee’s stated that although much of the evidence pointed to OJ and his involvement, there were many issues with the way evidence had been obtained (n. p). Lee’s testimony stated that multiple sets of footprints had been found hinting at the possibility of multiple attackers. There had also been a major distrust among law enforcement as it had been suspected that police had planted evidence. Lee’s testimony prevented Simpson from receiving a guilty verdict, however, he has stated that evidence does point to Simpsons involvement. “Dr. Lee also posited that two sets of footprints near the site of the murders could have been from multiple attackers, rather than from police investigators. His analyses and testimony were instrumental in Simpson being found not guilty for the murders” (Hatcher n. p). By using expert witnesses in court, individuals that have extensive knowledge on several fields such as crime scene investigation, pathology, and forensics, can come together to help solve even the most difficult cases.
The forensics department is one of the most influential pieces of the criminal justice system. The work that is put in to ensure accurate, correct, and reliable information about crimes is what ensures the truly guilty offenders are punished accordingly. The investigation process is essential in gathering the evidence for collection and protecting the rights of the innocent. Forensic scientists do their jobs correctly so that people who are unrightfully charged with a crime they did not commit, do not spend the rest of their lives in jail or prison. This profession works hand in hand with both the Law enforcement branch as well as the Courts branch. Henry Lee and Vincent Di Maio are both very influential forensic scientists with many years of expertise under their resumes. The expertise they set in the court rooms are primary examples of expert witnesses. These critical experts are needed in /p>order to preserve our sound society and to accurately bring justice to wrongdoers.
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