Influence Of High Intensity Artificial Sweeteners And Natural Sweet Protein On Human Body
Body weight will increase when energy intake is higher than energy expenditure. So many people prefer replacement of sugars with non-nutritive artificial sweeteners to decrease the calories intake and avoid the risk of obesity such: aspartame, neotame, advantame, alitame. Another vast majority of people use natural sweet taste protein as a source of low calorie sweeteners instead of synthetic in order to have no side effects such: Thaumatin, Monellin, Mabinlin, Pentadin etc. A significant factor for body weight regulation and food consumption is insulin and its receptors widely distributed throughout the body. The heterodimeric T1R2/T1R3 sweet taste receptor (located throughout the body) is activated after sweetly compounds intake including: caloric sugars (i.e. sucrose and glucose), Non-nutritive sweeteners (i.e. aspartame) and sweet proteins (i.e. thaumatin). Whereas the activation of the sweet taste receptors in the taste buds causes neurotransmitter release to transfer flavor to the brain. Subsequently activation of pancreatic sweet taste receptor leads to release insulin or glucagon-like peptide-1. An increase in blood glucose after food intake stimulates insulin release that supports the storage of nutrients. It was also proposed that a combination of artificial sweeteners and sugar in the diet could lead to a neuronal reaction that lead to quicker sugar absorption, also increased secretion of glucagon or insulin-related peptides. This process lowers the brain tryptophan concentration and thus the synthesis of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), stimulating the consumption of carbohydrates. So appetite increase. Blundell & Hill (1986) commented that: aspartame improved motivation for eating and reduce feelings of fullness after consumption. Compared to aspartame, glucose has been found to reduce appetite after consumption. In the general population, consumption of artificially sweetened drinks has risen and doubled in children above the age of two years and children who consume artificial sweeteners are at danger of gaining weight. Two studies proved the validity of the previous information, positive association between artificial sweeteners use and body mass index (BMI) were demonstrated in school-age and adolescent children. Some studies deny that 'non-caloric sweeteners increase the body weight'.
For example, Raben et al., (2002) has two group of overweight volunteers, 21 (sucrose consumer 493 kcal) and 20 (aspartame consumer 290 kcal) and noticed that after 10 weeks the increase in energy intake and body weight was observed in sucrose consumers but not in NNS (aspartame consumer). In another comparative between aspartame and sucrose effect on energy and body weight over 16 studies De la Hunty et al., (2006) concluded, in case of aspartame usage instead of sucrose notice that reduction in both energy intake and bodyweight and the expected loss approximately 0.2 Kg/ Week and the palatability of diet is not lost. In case of taste sweet protein, after eating dietary protein, hunger ratings and subsequent food intake are reduced compared to carbohydrates and fats. It can be clarified by higher concentration of 'satiety' hormones glucogen-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinine in post prandial plasma. In addition, 3 hours after dietary protein ghrelin is suppressed, so food intake decreases. Hagiwara et al., (2005) made two groups of both sex of Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) 10 male and 10 female then exanimated after preparation (non-irradiated thaumatin and irradiated thaumatin) after 13 weeks observed that no adverse effect of body weight, food consumption and water consumption. Kare et al., (1965); Hellekant, (1976) made short term and long term testes on big and monkys by using doses from natural sweeteners such sucrose, artificial sweeteners such saccharin and natural sweet proteins such monellin and thaumatin.
The results, monellin and thaumatin are the best to make energy balance. Non-caloric sweeteners is useful if use with acceptable daily intake. But with over dose every day can make tolerance and push individuals to consume more to get the same impact of the normal dose. So make an adverse healthy effect such gain weight. Although we are anticipate to lose weight owing to reduced calorie levels by replacing artificially sweetened drinks with sugar sweetened drinks, experimental studies demonstrated that, supposed calorie deficit is not preserved. Finally, the influence of sweeteners on the increase in food consumption is not clear. However low calorie natural proteinaceus sweeteners can`t make any adverse effect in human body and share in balance of body energy. Some writers argue that early use of sugar consumption in babies and young kids might influence the auto-regulation of food and sweet flavor which can still be preserved in kids and adolescence. So consumption of fruits or leaves of some plants (eg, Thaumatococcus danielli Benth, Dioscoreophyllum Cumminsii Diels, Capparis masaki, Pentadiplandra brazzeana, Curculingo latifolia and Richadella dulcifica) to get taste sweet protein is recommended for children and adult people. Natural sweet protein is best choice for artificial sweeteners replacement.