Machine Learning And Its Kinds

Machine Learning is an idea to learn from examples and experience, without being explicitly programmed. Instead of writing code, you feed data to the generic algorithm, and it builds logic based on the data given. For example, one kind of algorithm is a classification algorithm. It can put data into different groups. The classification algorithm used to detect handwritten alphabets could also be used to classify emails into spam and not-spam.

Examples of Machine Learning

There are many examples of machine learning. Here are a few examples of classification problems where the goal is to categorize objects into a fixed set of categories.

Face detection: Identify faces in images (or indicate if a face is present).

Email filtering: Classify emails into spam and not-spam.

Medical diagnosis: Diagnose a patient as a sufferer or non-sufferer of some disease.

Weather prediction: Predict, for instance, whether or not it will rain tomorrow.

Kinds of Machine Learning

There are three kinds of Machine Learning Algorithms.

  • Supervised Learning
  • Unsupervised Learning
  • Reinforcement Learning
  • Supervised Learning

A majority of practical machine learning uses supervised learning.In supervised learning, the system tries to learn from the previous examples that are given. (On the other hand, in unsupervised learning, the system attempts to find the patterns directly from the example given). Speaking mathematically, supervised learning is where you have both input variables (x) and output variables(Y) and can use an algorithm to derive the mapping function from the input to the output.The mapping function is expressed as Y = f(X).

Supervised learning problems can be further divided into two parts, namely classification, and regression.

.Classification: A classification problem is when the output variable is a category or a group, such as “black” or “white” or “spam” and “no spam”.

Regression: A regression problem is when the output variable is a real value, such as “Rupees” or “height.”

Unsupervised Learning

In unsupervised learning, the algorithms are left to themselves to discover interesting structures in the data. Mathematically, unsupervised learning is when you only have input data (X) and no corresponding output variables. This is called unsupervised learning because unlike supervised learning above, there are no given correct answers and the machine itself finds the answers.

Unsupervised learning problems can be further divided into association and clustering problems.

Association: An association rule learning problem is where you want to discover rules that describe large portions of your data, such as “people that buy X also tend to buy Y”.

Clustering: A clustering problem is where you want to discover the inherent groupings in the data, such as grouping customers by purchasing behaviour.

Reinforcement Learning

A computer program will interact with a dynamic environment in which it must perform a particular goal (such as playing a game with an opponent or driving a car). The program is provided feedback in terms of rewards and punishments as it navigates its problem space. Using this algorithm, the machine is trained to make specific decisions. It works this way: the machine is exposed to an environment where it continuously trains itself using trial and error method.

11 February 2020
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