Globalization - Effects on Economy, Culture and Politics
According to John B. Larson Globalization doesnt have to be a bad thing as long as government provides us all with the tools to cope in a changing world. It means that if the government know how to manage the products or trade they can easily cope up in modernization of the world and if the country remain in the bottom or their economy is not improving the problems is not in the globalization but it is in the government. In this argumentative essay about globalization there will be an analysis of nature of globalization and what effects it causes.
Globalization is an uneven process that affects people and state differently. Globalization is a term that are describes the changing of the movement of people, spread of products, technology, information, jobs across national borders, cultures, ideas, even the products and money that affects the way of living and in economic terms, it describes an interdependence of nations around the globe fostered through free trade. Globalization is also the interaction of people, the companies or even some international countries by importing and exporting some goods here in Philippines. Globalization also the decreasing of people's or world economies and populations. The other countries will have connection because of the globalization, without globalization the state will not improve or raise their living and their products will not notice in the world but if the country join in the connection of the world or the globalization the world can raise the economy, modernization, easy to communicate throughout the boundaries, easy to travel, proved greater range and access of different goods and services and it can increased production for companies due to greater demand and through globalization the state gain improvement when it comes to global economy, globalizations also build connections and bridges in different countries for the trade become easier and more accessible especially for the developing country.
Effects of Globalization in Economy
Globalization is changing the world economy, it open up some opportunities for other countries all over the world. Some countries or some people see globalization as a force for economic growth and development. Some people blame globalization because of environmental damages that we are coping today. We know that globalization is a process that allows different countries around the world to have connections or relationship to others. Globalization affects economic state by the money, wherein some businesses worldwide increasing their costs by moving some manufacturing operations to other countries. Some trade and rising global connectivity helps money to travel. With globalization, one company in one country can sell products in other country, companies in one country can save money and change people' lives. Globalization affects economic state by global employment opportunities, globalization allows people to locate and find jobs in different countries, because it helps them to get a higher income and new job in different countries for them to support their family. And globalization affects the economic state by getting free trade wherein one of primary advantages of globalization is the free trade of goods and resources. Globalization benefits everyone. For instances, a country that specialize in motor vehicles will produce cars and accessories in a location that achieve the decreasing of costs and sell them in local markets. And it means that people living in other countries are able to buy their vehicles and accessories less.
Effects of Globalization in Culture
Due to globalization is multi dimensions, have been formed various outlooks about impact of it on culture. The how is relation between globalization and cultures and subcultures, and also the measure and quality impaction of globalization on cultures have been scopes for opinions of analysers and researchers.
According to this outlook, due to globalization has generalization and universalizing character, is opposite of every kind of difference and specialization such as cultural specialism. So, coexistence with different cultures isnt possible. Globalization is figure on broadcast and dominates a special culture on other cultures in the world. Hence, the orientation of globalization is toward culture integration and similarization. In the process of globalization, most of cultures and subcultures in face of capitalism culture will catch gradual erosion and transmutation. Cultures and traditional subcultures in different societies, in contrast to capitalism culture are have to retreat, abandon, and mix and sometimes fall down.
Cultural similarization is referring to spreading of cultural imperialism and also sometime it has called Americanization. Cultural imperialism in form of cultural integration and similarization and by use of instruments of media and communications technology, dominates on all the world and specific on culture of non-development countries. Development societies and countries, due to have high level of economic and technology, create and propagate a special cultural discourse and catch their goals by multinational corporations. The cultural imperialism is formed of some ideas
Some believe that globalization has caused variety in culture. In spite of efforts of some countries in broadcast and spread of Western culture, but the single and universal culture and identity didnt form. Compaction of time and place, reduction cultural and physical barriers and borders, increase of interactions and communications between nations and individuals, have caused reinforcement, proliferation and variation of cultures, languages, religions and ideologies. Increase and reproduce of dependencies, symbols, modes, behaviors, slogans, ideologies, and movements in regional, national and global level are signs of cultural variety and its sovereignty on cultural imperialism. Nowadays, nationalism, regionalism, sectarianism, sociality, fundamentalism, traditionalism are as powerful and role full ideologies in around the world yet.
Cultural globalization causes reinforcement of many domestic any regional characteristics. The process of globalization produces dialectically a paradox process against itself. Globalization and universalization of information and communications technology have been grown a kind of ethnic, religious and cultural knowledge, and reinforced native loyalties and subcultures. Principally, the nations identities are forming by special and different characteristics of others. Globalization with removing identification and knowledge barriers has created the foundations reinforcement of ethnic, domestic and national identity. In fact, globalization has caused cultural variety, and cultural variety has caused variety of life. Globalization has created a market of cultural variety which human can catch difference things and identify unites and diversities which are exist between he and others, and everyone can create new world for himself. The nature of globalization is planning for dialog and discussion among individuals, nations and even states, and dialog is based on principle of variety. The philosophy of dialog is based on this principle that, the other is also existence and he may be truth.
Cultural Unity - Variety
Some argue that globalization is age of appearance of oppositions. Some of these oppositions are such as; Unitarianism and intensitism, globalization and regionalization, generalization and specialization, appearance of global society inside of nation, postmodernism apart of modernism, appearance and broadcast processes of secularism apart of secularism processes, coexistence of traditionalism identities with modern traditions, individualism and pluralism. New age assumes that all claims are right, without acceptance of absolute relativism. Globalization recognizes cultural variety and native and national interests, but yet obliges a kind of global unity. The felicity of living in global common society is preservation degree of independence and difference of individual and nations, and also reinforcement of some common cultures and identities. So, globalization not only doesnt delete native, regional and national cultures, but also doesnt deny formation of global new identity and expand of humanity common ideals in world wid. Human in globalization age tries to understanding and identifying the differences existence among nations, and so tries to creating relational and communicational principals among individuals, nations and even states, and tries to going toward common and coexistence life. Hence, according to this outlook, globalization doesnt create cultural imperialism and neither creates cultural variety only.
Effects of Globalization in Politics
Globalization by removing geographical, political and cultural borders, and also by pass dame of time and place has changed attitudes, behavior and action of individuals, nations, states and even socio-political structure of societies. In politics scope, globalization has created several evolutions which some of them are as follows.
Globalization and Democracy
The phenomenon of globalization as a new paradigm, in influence of economic evolutions, has excellent changed human societies from half century past. In late decades, the scientific and academic societies, especially political science, and some other matters like political systems, states, and deem. Based on different goals and definitions of democracy, there are many various models of democracy. According to mass direct or indirect participation, it disports to direct and indirect or participative democracy. And according to isonomy and equality of economy, there are liberal and social democracy and social democracy disport to industrial and corporate democracy. And according to different geographical scopes, and many religions and races groups, the indirect democracy disports to current democracy and multiracial and associative democracy.
Democracy has main characteristics that some of them are as follows:
- Free elections. It means every one and groups can have chance to reach power. This is a main index to evaluation democracy in political systems.
- Rationality of political actors. In fact, this index is basic of democratic system, and is democratic structures formation. However, the measure rationality of actors is different in various countries.
- Separation and monitoring of powers.
- Liberally decision making power of representations. The representations should be making decision making liberally and without internal and external threat and impacts.
- Freedom of parties, political groups, social forces, in political actions. 'Josef Schumpeter' belief that, this index is essential for democratic decision making.
- Civil liberties and its safeguard. It includes freedom of expression, press, conscience, information, association, action, and etc. This index, obtains the context of political participation.
- Codification of constitution and respect it. In fact, the constitution appearance general will and guaranties democracy.
- Political and social equal opportunity for all citizens.
There are many different outlooks about effective of globalization on structures of political system and democratization process. Because of globalization and democracy are complex, fluid and universal concepts. Some thoughtful argued, globalization explodes and reinforces the measure of democracy in national and supranational level. And others said it is a serious challenge for democratization process. Some thinkers belief, it's negative and positive effectives are different in various countries, and it dependence to conditions.
The effective of globalization on democracy is not limited to special scope. Some thoughtful beliefs that, globalization effects on all foundations of democracy such as: freedom of expression, freedom of belief and religion, civil community, citizenship rights, confine of state activity, legitimacy of governors, freedom of press, and etc. In principle there are some ways and methods of effective of globalization on democracy that follows:
- Evolution on concept of democracy: Democracy, in influenced of globalization, has more changed in relative to its traditional concept. Democracy in its new concept is not just participation process, election, representation, reign of low, and political and urban freedom. But it should be define as: measure of formation civil institutions in societies and its combine on global culture. In 'David Held' opinion, democracy in globalization age, include societies that closed in borders. However they utilize similar communication and world order.
- Spread of civil society: Civil society is essential and structural request for democracy realization. Behind the three columns of democracy, namely: responder state, freedom elections, urban and political rights, the civil society are fourth and important column of democracy.so, democracy doesn't realize, unless independent institutions of civil society be Institutionalize in societies. 'Richard Falk' beliefs, globalization not only created civil society in national level and inside of nation-states, but also caused creation civil society in supranational level, namely; global civil society. Global civil society includes all organizations, movements and associations that are ultra-individuals and understate.
- Increase of middle class: Globalization increased and developed middle class, by increase of urban institutions, parties, national and supranational groups and movements. Increase of middle class, whit various and vast demands, is a social context of democracy. In otherwise, it signs non growth of democracy.
Globalization and Nation-State
The post important political scope of globalization is its impact on nation-state as a historic phenomenon. Some are believe that political globalization is salvation of state domination. It means that globalization reduces the authority and autonomy of states. Other groups are arguing that globalization phenomenon causes downfall of nation-state. In contrast, some writers believe that globalization not only doesnt waken nation-state but, in globalization age, the central role of states will be preservation and state as a main factor of organizer will stable. Some theoreticians, with realism outlook and without stress on continue or downfall of state, have regarded to reference of supervision, and they believe that in globalization process the concentration of supervision will be transfer from national state to sub governmental, nongovernmental and ultra-governmental organizations. In other words, in globalization age the method of governance will be completely difference.
Globalization and New Political Actors
Another impact of globalization on politics is appearance new political actors in national, regional and global scopes, and change in location of some old and traditional actors. These new actors, in inside of state, are visible in form of groups, ethnic and regional organizations, and in transnational dimension, they are action in form of intergovernmental international organizations and nongovernmental international organizations. The important point is non historic growth of new different organizations, especially transnational organizations in late of 20th and beginning of 21th. The number of intergovernmental organizations has increased from 37 at the beginning of 20th century to 300 at its end.
Globalization affects states not only in government or in politically, culturally but also economically. These institution is relevant in the globalization because having the concept of globalization is still practical and applicable now a days, because globalization also interact with technological explosion since that there is a connection between countries given by globalization those countries sharing an idea about advance in technology and trading those technology that they invented. Globalization is not just for globalized economy it also considers the cultural globalization. It breaks the cultural diversities among countries for the better promotion of the culture of different countries. Moreover, globalization sets new paradigm in politics.